Tuesday, May 26, 2020

A Letter Of A New Collection Entitled Representations Of...

You have been invited to speak at the book launch of a new collection entitled Representations of Change. In your speech explain and assess the ways in which change is represented in the texts included in this collection. In your answer, you should refer to the TWO texts studied in class, and at least ONE other related text of your own choosing. Imagine shifting from one side to another, in a dark cold night with the ocean so deep and infinite, and the waves are playing with you like a little tennis ball. You are lost in an ocean of blue, and there is no end in sight. Well, good morning ladies and gentlemen, I’m the author Nancy Leon and I’m present here today to launch my new book collection ‘Representations of change’. This†¦show more content†¦This poem was written by a young Vietnamese girl; Hein Nguyen, her life changing experience was filled with hardships and challenges that she expresses beautifully in her poem using many poetic language devices such as sophisticated emotive and descriptive language. The second text that inspired me to write was a photograph taken by Andrew McConnell of a young Syrian child, who arrived to a small island near Turkey by a boat. The little child’s pain and suffering that were a result of the massive change in his life are portrayed by various visual techniques such as body language, gaze and colour contrast. Lastly the third text is the book cover; ‘Goodbye, Vietnam’ by Gloria Whelan. The book cover succeeds to narrate the story of the girl on the front cover very effectively using simple visu al techniques such as facial expression, colour contrast and positioning. It is very difficult to imagine their situations, let alone living them! By the end of this speech, I’m sure that you will understand and empathise with those characters and that will increase your interest in reading my book collection ‘Representations of Change’ because they contain similar concept of changing lives and its effects on boat people. â€Å"Over the China Sea† poem includes language techniques that help the audience understand the concept of changing lives. Nguyen went through a massive change that affected her physically, emotionally and intellectually and this is supported by evidence found

Friday, May 15, 2020

Classification Of Medication By Sarah Jennings - 868 Words

Stuti Patel Unitek College Ms.Brooks Classification Of Medication Sarah Jennings is a 45 years old female, 5 feet 6inches tall, 130lbs. Today she came in to see Dr. Wallace for 3-month appointment. She has been diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, and cholesterol. Due her cholesterol medication she was asked to come in to get her liver function checked. During her visit today she mentioned to the doctor she has had knee pain for the past few days. It started after she tripped while hiking last week. Sarah also suffers with bipolar disorder, but she has been doing well with the anti-depressant she is on. She is a very sweet, tiny, determined lady who is trying her best to keep up with all her health issues. She has changed her diet and has been good with exercising daily. Sarah has been taking prazosin for hypertension which a alpha blocker. It blocks receptors in the arteries in smooth muscle. This helps relax the blood vessels and leads to an increase in blood flow and a lower blood pressure. The most common side effects of are dizziness, drowsi ness, fatigue, headache, nervousness, irritability, stuffy or runny nose, nausea, pain in the arms and legs, hypotension, and weakness. Also another side effect is first-dose orthostatic hypotension because initially the patient has more sensitive to the blood pressure-lowering effects. As patients continue to take the medication they become less sensitive and have fewer problems with hypotension. There

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

21 Fun Facts About Coffee Essay - 1496 Words

Title: 21 Fun Facts about Coffee (1600 words) Coffee is one of the most popular beverages on the planet. According to a rough estimate, nearly 400 to 500 billion coffee cups are consumed each year. Astonished? Well, it’s only one of many truly amazing coffee facts. So sit back and enjoy the following list of crazy coffee facts. Crazy Fact 1. Coffee was discovered with the help of crazy goats Like various other discoveries, the magical powers of coffee was discovered with the help of crazy goats. Ethiopian Shepherds noticed strange effects in their goats as they started dancing after their meals. Later, they realized that goats danced whenever they ate coffee berries. Crazy Fact 2. The history of the word â€Å"coffee†? Coffee was first known as ‘Qahhwat al-bun,’ which means ‘the wine of bean.’ Later, the word was shortened to ‘Qahwa’, after-which the word was converted to ‘Kahve’ by the Turks. In 1582, ‘coffee’ entered into the English language derived from the Dutch word ‘Koffie.’ Crazy Fact 3. Before Coffee, there was†¦ beer! Who would have thought, that prior to coffee, beer was the most popular beverage! That’s right - before coffee, people consumed beer with their breakfast. Why – in many places drinking water was so full of harmful bacteria that to make it safe they turned it into beer! Crazy Fact 4. You don’t need a coffee immediately when you wake up Or at least you shouldn’t need it. Cortisol is a naturally produced hormone that helps us, among other this, feel alert.Show MoreRelatedNew School Nutrition: A Dictatorship Essay705 Words   |  3 Pagesdisappointing celebration is the result of the new school nutrition policy that dictates what can and cannot be offered in schools (Beard). With over one third of the nation’s children and adolescents obese or overweight in 2010, something must be done about the health of our kids (Childhood). But this new policy has gone too far and limits many aspects of school life. The policy is too severe and needs to be revised because it over regulates fundraisers many school organizations rely upon for fundingRead MoreCollege Stress and Prevention of College Stress1300 Words   |  6 Pagesinto university and becoming a college student used to be fun because of the friends and memories they would make. However, college life can be stressful now, especially for first-year studen ts. What is stress? Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman defined stress as â€Å" the result of an individuals’ perceptions that they do not have the resources to cope with a perceived situation from the past, present or future.† (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). In fact, stress is inevitable. Sometimes stress forces studentsRead MoreAnalyzing Richard Branson Essay1465 Words   |  6 Pageswould surely object to and would certainly pop out of like a jack-in-the- box. The difficulty with attempting to analyze the leadership style of Branson is that everything that has been written about him prefaces his achievement with his larger than life personality. Theres no denying that Branson is fun and passionate, but hes also very bright and very hardworking. I think that if Branson took the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Profile he would discover that he is ENTP: an extroverted, intuitiveRead MoreRalph the Duck1646 Words   |  7 Pagesof concern for his own health. He seems to have little energy, most likely due to the fact that he doesnt sleep well. Several times throughout the story he consumes large amounts of alcohol. He has a king-sized drink composed of sourmash whiskey and ice (10) with dinner, while driving at work he has a thermos of sourmash and hot coffee and one morning he starts on a wet breakfast. This would symbolize the fact that the narrator is imposing his condition upon himself. He is bored with his life,Read MoreRichard Branson Ess ay example1472 Words   |  6 Pageswould surely object to and would certainly pop out of like a jack-in-the- box. The difficulty with attempting to analyze the leadership style of Branson is that everything that has been written about him prefaces his achievement with his larger than life personality. Theres no denying that Branson is fun and passionate, but hes also very bright and very hardworking. I think that if Branson took the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Profile he would discover that he is ENTP: an extroverted, intuitiveRead More Which is the Best Method of Cleaning Our Hands? Essay examples1343 Words   |  6 Pages When your hands are dirty do you reach for soap, alcohol hand sanitizer, non-alcohol hand sanitizer, or a wipe? In fact, many people are ditching the age-old method of soap and water for hand sanitizers and wipes. 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I worked alongside the Sales Coordinator Ksenia, the Convention Sales Manager Teagan, the Banquet Manager Luis, and the Sales Manager Ashley. Last Monday (09/21/15) I had the pleasure of learning the BEO system for Marriott with the Sales Manager Ashley. Marriott full service hotels do not use Delphi for their BEO’s, instead they use a B.E.O. software specific to Marriott called C.I.T.Y. This is a very difficultRead MoreBelfast And Belfast Visitor Guide3467 Words   |  14 Pagesdifferent station where the trains stop but they are more in North, South, West and East but less close to the city. Belfast has about 12 different lines of express coach, bus and Rail network, they all pass through the centre of the city but they all go to different destination, so getting around Belfast couldn’t be easier with lots of transport options. This is an important fact to attract more tourism, so when they coming to a city they are able to travel easily with different types of transport thatRead MoreNarcissism Among Teenagers s Song Of Narcissism1563 Words   |  7 PagesIn this 21 century as the technology and internet have developed time by time, many things are happening. People are now can share any of their thoughts and idea on social media without filter. One phenomenon that is popular nowadays is narcissism among teenagers. They express their narcissistic through social media. It can take the simplest form as a status on Facebook or a photo, but also the weirdest thing as obsession over followers on Instagram which we are going to see further about it. As

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

32342343242342 Essay Example For Students

32342343242342 Essay Knowing about the body systems is important. When you know about your body, youll be more healthy than if you didnt. Any sport player needs to know and understand how all his muscles work, so when it comes to exercise or working out, they can know what their limits are. The skeletal system is made up of your bones, ligaments, and tendons. It determines the shape and symmetry of the body; acts as a protective device for your organs; acts as a firm base for the attachments of muscles (without bones, your muscles would not function properly); and the marrow tissues in the cavity of the bones produces red cells and some white cells, required in your blood. Humans have an endoskeleton, meaning that the skeleton is located inside of the body. It consists of about 200 bones. The number of bones varies, because some bones fuse at different periods of time. Most bones are hollow with marrow bones inside. Ligaments connect bones to bones, and tendons connect bones to muscles. The human skeleton is divided into an appendicular skeleton (bones of arms and legs or appendages), and the axial skeleton (skull, backbone or vertebrae)The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles which are attached to the skeleton, which provides the pulling power for us to move around. The main job of the muscular system is to provide movement for the body. The muscular system consists of three different types of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. Each of these different tissues has the ability to contract, which then allows body movements and functions. There are two types of muscles in the system and they are the voluntary and involuntary muscles. The muscles that we are allowed to control ourselves are called the voluntary muscles. The muscles we cant control are called the involuntary muscles. The heart, or the cardiac muscle, is an example of involuntary muscles. The human nervous system is responsible for sending, receiving, and processing nerve impulses throughout the body. All the organs and muscles inside your body rely upon these nerve impulses to function. It could be considered as the master control unit inside of your body. Sense organs provide the nervous system with information about the environment by means of such senses as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, pressure, and pain. Nerves are connected throughout the whole body to the brain. They carry the information throughout the body in the form of electrochemical signals called impulses. These impulses travel from the brain and spinal cord to the nerves located throughout the body. It is largely made up of specialized cells called neurons. Each of these neurons has a cell body, or cyton, which contains the nucleus and organelles. It takes the corporation of three systems to carry out the mission of the nervous system. They are the central, the peripheral, and the autonomic nerv ous systems. The endocrine system is a collection of special organs in the body that produce hormones. Theses organs are usually called the glands. They are located in different parts of the body. For example, the pituitary is in the brain, the thyroid is in the neck, the adrenal glands are in the kidneys, and the sexual glands (ovaries and testes) are located in the sexual organs. Each gland releases a hormone into the blood, which travels all through the body. Hormones regulate our body activities, for example: growth, sleep, sudden actions, feelings and blood sugar for energy. The digestive system contains organs for changing food chemically for absorption by body tissues. It is also responsible for processing food, breaking it down into usable proteins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and other substances. The digestion process involves breaking food into simple soluble substances absorbable by tissues. .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .postImageUrl , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:hover , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:visited , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:active { border:0!important; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:active , .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03 .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u14dc4b9bd929622f1a1d72ce3d9f9c03:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Wwii (690 words) EssayThe digestion process includes both mechanical and chemical processes. The mechanical processes include chewing to reduce food into smaller particles, the churning actions of the stomach, and the intestinal peristaltic action. Three different chemical reactions take place: conversions of carbohydrates into such simple sugars as glucose, breaking down of protein into amino acids, and the conversion of fats into fatty acids and glycerol. These processes are accomplished by specific enzymes. The respiratory systems main task is to supply oxygen to the blood and to get

Monday, April 13, 2020


Introduction PepsiCo is a leading manufacturer and seller of non-alcoholic beverages in the global beverage industry. The success of PepsiCo is mainly attributed to sound marketing strategies and product differentiation. Due to the high competition in the global and US beverage industry, PepsiCo must always review its marketing strategies and product portfolio. This will enable it to produce the right products and access new markets.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on PepsiCo specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is against this backdrop that this report seeks to analyze PepsiCo’s situation and future prospects in the alternative beverage industry. The report begins with the five forces and driving forces analysis. This will be followed by an evaluation of PepsiCo’s business model and financial performance. A SWOT analysis as well as an assessment of PepsiCo’s competitive strategy will, then, be conducted. Finally, recommendations on how PepsiCo can enhance its position and Future performance in the Industry will be presented. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis The Porter’s five forces analysis is a technique used to assess the competitive environment of a business. It particularly assists in gaining insights on the factors that affect competition in any given market. Competition in the beverages market can, thus, be explained as follows. Threat of Substitutes Currently, the alternative beverages are competing with a large number of substitutes. Such substitutes include carbonated soft drinks as well as juices. Additionally, the prices of alternative beverages are significantly higher than those for substitute drinks. For example, the prices for sports drinks as well as vitamin enhanced beverages were 50% to 70% higher than the prices of carbonated soft drinks of comparable sizes. Consequently, there is a possibility that customers shifted their preference from alternative beverages to carbonated soft drinks. Contrary to alternative beverages, substitute drinks such as juices are associated with low health risks. This differentiation is likely to make substitute drinks a better choice, especially, among customers who are concerned about their health. Thus, the threat posed by substitute products in the beverage industry is high.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New Entrants The threat attributed to new entrants in the US and global alternative beverage industry is low due to the following reasons. First, the incumbent firms enjoy economies of scale. For example, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have large production plants and operate in over 200 countries. Besides, the dominant firms command large market shares. PepsiCo, for instance, had 47.8% market share of alternative beverage market in US in 2009. Second, there is high product diff erentiation in the industry in order to counter competition. For instance, most companies focus on the taste, image and energy-boosting capabilities of their energy drinks in order to ensure customer loyalty. Third, joining the beverage industry requires a lot of financial capital. It is for this reason that small firms such as Hansen have had to outsource all their production and distribution activities. Fourth, the incumbents have a great control over the distribution channel. All small firms have contracted bottling companies and distributors such as Anheuser-Bosch to manufacture and distribute their products. Finally, the incumbents have high propriety knowledge in production and marketing. Dominants firms such as Coca-Cola have used patents to prevent new firms from accessing their production techniques. Power of Suppliers There are many suppliers of most of the production inputs in the beverage industry. Besides, there are many substitutes for production inputs such as packagi ng material. Product differentiation in the suppliers’ industry is high since the large number of suppliers leads to high competition. Additionally, the buyers (beverage manufacturers) are important to suppliers since they purchase large volumes of inputs. However, the buyers have low switching cost. For instance, a manufacturer can easily shift from one supplier to the other. This leads to the conclusion that the suppliers have a low bargaining power. Power of the Buyer There are many buyers in the beverage industry. The buyers have low switching costs, and can thus, obtain their supplies from different suppliers. The suppliers’ products are highly differentiated due to competition in their industry. Besides, the suppliers’ products are of great impotence since they determine the quality of the buyers’ end products. The threat of backward integration is, however, high since the dominant firms such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have the financial resources to purchase the input producing firms or to produce their own inputs. Thus, buyers have a moderate bargaining power.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on PepsiCo specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Competitive Rivalry The threat attributed to competitive rivalry is very high in the beverage industry due to the following reasons. First, there are very many competitors, and this makes it difficult for each firm to expand its market share. Second, the beverage industry has a low growth rate. The industry’s growth rate is projected at 12% in five years (from 2009 to 2014). This is attributed to the fact that the industry is at its maturity stage. Besides, the 2008/2009 financial crisis negatively lowered demand in the industry. Third, distribution in the industry is associated with high fixed costs and storage costs. Finally, the products are highly differentiated. These conditions have contributed to high competit ion in the industry. Driving forces Analysis Driving forces are both internal and external factors that cause change in an organization. The main driving forces in alternative beverage industry include the following. Social The social factors include the behaviors of the consumers of various alternative beverages and the social events associated with the consumption of alternative beverages. Undesirable behaviors such as â€Å"mixing alcohol and energy drinks† led to disapproval of alternative beverages. This is because such behaviors can lead to over consumption of alcohol. The criticism had negative impacts on the demand for various alternative beverage brands. In response to customers’ need to simultaneously consume alcohol and energy drinks, companies such as Miller-Coors developed new products, alcohol energy drinks, which contain both alcohol and energy boosting capabilities. Demographic factors such as age and occupation also influenced the consumption of altern ative beverages. For instance, energy drinks are frequently consumed by teenage males, sports professionals, and manual laborers. Vitamin-enhanced beverages on the hand are highly purchased by adults. The marketing of most alternative beverages depend on social events. Most producers build their brand image by sponsoring sports activities, and music festivals. For instance, Red Bull sponsors sports such as athletics as a way of marketing its energy drinks. They also depend on celebrity endorsements to enhance the popularity of their products.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economy The economic performance of a country or region has significant effect on demand for alternative beverages. The financial crisis in US, coupled with the maturity of beverage industry led most producers to seek new markets. The rapid economic growth in emerging economies, especially in Asia, is expected to enhance demand for alternative beverages. Consequently, producers are exporting their products to overseas markets such as Australia. At the firm level, high cost of production has forced firms to seek efficient distribution techniques. For instance, small firms outsource various production and distribution activities in order to lower costs. Technology As competition intensify, firms focus on product differentiation on the basis of quality. This has been achieved through modern technology that facilitates research and development and efficiency in production. Modern communication technology enhances marketing in the industry by facilitating the design of clever adverts and appealing packaging. Communication technology also promotes synchronization of supply chain activities for firms that outsource various production and distribution activities. Political and Legal Factors Alternative beverages such as energy drinks and relaxation drinks have been associated with health risks such as heart arrhythmia. This has a negative impact on the production of these products. For instance, Miller-Coors had to eliminate the caffeine in its energy drink when attorney generals counseled for the ban of energy drinks with high caffeine content. Besides, health professionals are advising the public to avoid consuming relaxation drinks that contain kava. Competence Dominant firms such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo owe their success to their core competencies. Both firms boast of a strong brand image. Besides, they have vast experience in production, and this enables them to access new markets. Finally, environmental factors such as weather patterns affect the consumption of alternative beverages. For instance, energy drinks are likely to be consumed on a hot day. PepsiCo’s Business Model PepsiCo directly produces and distributes its range of beverages in the markets it operates in. The customer segments served by PepsiCo include teenagers, adults, sports professionals and celebrities. The value proposition of the firm is characterized with a wide range of beverages and foodstuffs. The company sells both carbonated drinks such as sodas and alternative beverages such as energy drinks, vitamin enhanced drinks and sports drinks. In order to create value for its customers, each of the company’s drinks is tailored to meet specific needs for every customer segment. For instance, sports drinks are tailor made for sports personalities. PepsiCo offers its value proposition through different distribution channels. Its products are retailed by â€Å"supermarkets, supercenters, restaurants, and natural food shops†. The company also reaches its customers by sponsoring sports and music events as well as advertising its products. PepsiCo ensures customer loyalty by maintaining positive relationships with them. For instance, it ensures timely delivery of all alternative drinks to retailers such as convenience stores. The firm has the largest market share for alternative beverages in US, 47.8%. Thus, the sale of alternative beverages is the main revenue stream for PepsiCo. Other revenue streams include the sale of carbonated drinks and snacks. The key resources that support PepsiCo’s business model are a strong brand image, high product visibility (operates in over 200 countries) and a stable financial position. However, the firm incurs high sales costs (about 46% of its net income). Evaluation of PepsiCo’s Financial Performance The firm’s revenue in the 2007 financial year was $ 34,474 million. The revenue grew to $43,251 in 2008, reflecting a 9.6% growth. However, the revenue declined by 0.04% to 43,232 million in 2009. PepsiCo incurred sales costs amounting to $18,038 million in 2007, and $ 20351 million in 2008. This reflected a 12.8% increase in sales costs. In 2009, it managed to reduce its sales costs by 1.2% to $ 20,099 million. In 2007, PepsiCo made a profit of $ 7,182 million. The profits fell by 3.1% in 2008. Thus, it made $ 6,959 in operating profits. However, the firm managed to increase its profits by 15.6% in 2009. Thus, it made $8,044 in operating profits. The above information shows that PepsiCo increased its revenue by 9.6% in 2008. However, the increase in sales costs over the same period led to a 3.1% reduction in profits. The reduction in sales costs by 1.2% probably led to the 15.6% increase in profits. Overall, the company remained profitable between 2007 and 2009. We can conclude that it is financially stable. SWOT Analysis PepsiCo has the following strengths. It has a large market share that enables it to earn high revenues. Overall, PepsiCo is the â€Å"fo urth-largest producer of food and beverages†. It also has the largest market share of alternative beverages in US. PepsiCo has a well established brand image. It sells some of the most popular drinks such as Lay’s and Tostito. The brand image is a core competence that enables it to venture into a variety of markets, thereby increasing sells. Finally, PepsiCo has a stable financial position. Consequently, it can easily finance its expansion programs. The main weakness of PepsiCo is its inability to outperform Coca-Cola (its main competitor) in the manufacture and sell of carbonated soft drinks. Since carbonated soft drinks and alternative beverages are substitutes, PepsiCo might lose its overall market share if there is a major shift in preference in favor of carbonated soft drinks. PepsiCo has the following opportunities in the industry. The threat attributed to new entrants is low in the industry. This means that competition is not likely to increase as a result of new firms joining the industry. Thus, PepsiCo has the opportunity to increase its production in order to meet future increases in demand. The low bargaining power of suppliers in the industry is also an opportunity for PepsiCo. In particular, it has the opportunity to bargain for cheap supplies. Besides, it has the opportunity to obtain high quality inputs as suppliers compete among themselves. The rapid growth in purchasing power in emerging economies is an opportunity for PepsiCo to expand by joining the emerging markets. The threats facing PepsiCo include the following. The threat attributed to substitute products is likely to constrain PepsiCo’s ability to increase the prices of its products. This will have a negative impact on revenue and profits. Besides, it can lead to significant loss of market share. The threat attributed to competitive rivalry is likely to reduce PepsiCo’s revenue and ability to expand. This is because sales and marketing costs rise as firms att empt to counter competition through advertising and differentiation. The alternative beverage industry in US where PepsiCo has the largest market share is at its maturity stage. Besides, the economic down turn in US has shifted demand away from alternative beverages. Thus, PepsiCo’s revenue streams from the US market are likely to reduce. PepsiCo’s Competition Strategy As a dominant firm in the beverage industry, PepsiCo is pursuing market leadership strategies. The company has focused on market expansion programs by joining new markets. Additionally, the firm focuses on new product development in order to find new market segments. PepsiCo is also keen in defending its large market share in various regions. This has been achieved through innovation that helps to improve its marketing mix. Such innovative activities involves promotion blitz that engage celebrities and the youth in order to ensure customer loyalty. The firm’s products are constantly improved and d ifferentiated on the basis of quality, tastes and visibility. The expansion strategy is likely to help PepsiCo to maintain its dominant position in the industry, especially, in the alternative beverage market. However, in addition to being defensive of its market share, PepsiCo needs to be offensive. As more firms compete for the alternative beverage market share, PepsiCo should also aim at increasing its market share for alternative beverages as well as carbonated soft drinks. Recommendations Given the analysis of PepsiCo’s competitive and internal environment, the following recommendations can be considered by its management in order to improve its competitiveness. Cost Leadership Strategy In order to pursue this strategy, PepsiCo must aim at producing at the lowest cost in the industry. Thus, it can sell its products at the prevailing prices, thereby making higher profits than its competitors. In order to enhance market penetration for its new products, PepsiCo can reduce its prices below the prevailing prices. This will lead to an increase in market share for the new products. The cost leadership strategy can be implemented by improving production efficiency which reduces production costs. The firm can also focus on optimal outsourcing in order to avoid unnecessary costs. PepsiCo can gain access to cheap and reliable supply of raw materials through backward integration. PepsiCo has the ability to pursue cost leadership strategy since it has the financial resources to invest in production assets. Such an investment will be an entry barrier to the small firms that lack adequate financial resources. PepsiCo also has the experience and expertise in manufacturing high quality products. Additionally, its efficient distribution channel will enable it to reduce sales costs. The benefits of this strategy are as follows. First, the ability to reduce prices will act as an entry barrier to firms that intend to join the alternative beverage industry where PepsiC o has the largest market share. Second, PepsiCo can use low prices to counter the threat attributed to substitute products. Finally, competing on the basis of price will enable PepsiCo to counter the threat attributed to competitive rivalry in the industry. Differentiation Strategy This involves producing products that â€Å"offer unique attributes that are valued by customers†. Currently, every firm in the industry is focusing on product differentiation, thus, PepsiCo can only defend its market share by doing the same. In this context, the firm must continue to improve its existing range of products. This will enhance customer loyalty. Besides, it must produce new products that meet emerging needs of the market. PepsiCo has the ability to pursue the differentiation strategy since it has the financial resources to undertake research and development. The research and development will help in developing high quality products. Additionally, it has a reputation for producing high quality products through innovation. The benefits of differentiation strategy include the following. Customer loyalty will act as an entry barrier if potential entrants can not attract PepsiCo’s customers. The customers will be attached to the differentiating characteristics, and this helps in countering the threat posed by substitutes. Finally, brand loyalty will help in countering competition. Conclusion PepsiCo is a leading manufacturer and seller of various beverages and foodstuffs. The analysis of the competitive environment indicates that suppliers have low bargaining power. The substitute products and competitive rivalry pose high threats in the industry. However, new entrants have low threats for the incumbents. These forces present both threats and opportunities to PepsiCo as discussed above. The main driving forces in the industry include technology, social, core competence, political/legal and economic forces. PepsiCo’s main strengths are its brand image an d large market share. Its main weakness is its inability to lead in the carbonated soft drink segment. In order to improve its competitiveness, the firm can pursue both cost leadership and differentiation strategies. References Aguirre, I. (2004). Product Differentiation with Customer Arbitrage. 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New York: Routledge. Saxena, J. (2009). Marketing Management. New York: Cengage learning. Serge, M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday. Sharma, A. (2005). Relationship Marketing. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(2), 87-89. Siomkos, G. (2002). Strategic Marketing Planning for Competitive Advantages in Electronic Commerce. International Journal of Services, Technology and Management, 3(1), 22-38. Srivastava, R. (2001). The resource-based view and Marketing. Journal of Management, 27(1), 771-802. Walter, G. (2003). Modern Competitive Strategy. New York: Cengage Learning. Warren, K. (2002). Competitive Startegy Dynamics. London: Oxford University Press. Wilhelmsson, F. (2006). Market Power and European Co mpetitiveness in Swedish Food Industry. Journal of Agriculture and Food Industrial Organization, 49(1), 7-8. Winer, R. (2010). Marketing Management. New York: Yale University Press. 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Iran's Collection Capabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Iran's Collection Capabilities - Essay Example This complex part came first followed the simpler version a year later. The cyber-weapon was discovered in a short period signifying Iranian CYBERINT capability. Stuxnet’s was designed to enhance speed and breakage.2 The effect of this was countered by ‘Protection systems’ that checked the abnormal process threatening the health and environment processes.3 In Natanz, Iranian authority established a unique system. The system was meant to offer protection and sustenance to the uranium enrichment. This used unreliable and obsolete equipment, the IR-1 centrifuge.4 The IR-1s is a weighty and critical protection system of the Iranian enrichment program without which the program would be vulnerable and useless. However, the IR-1 centrifuge the centrifuge at Natanz has slowed enrichment of centrifuge, but it is more reliable from attack than its predecessors are.5 Langner, Ralph. "The realprogram to sabotage Irans nuclear facilities was far more sophisticated than anyone realized." Foreign Policy. November 19, 2013. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/11/19/stuxnets_secret_twin_iran_nukes_cyber_attack (Accessed April 20,