Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Childhood leukemia development and correlation with traffic air Article

Childhood leukemia development and correlation with traffic air pollution - Article Example The study shows that children are more likely to develop leukemia if they live in urban centers. The reason for this is the high levels of pollution in cities. The research goes to show the problems that high pollution levels can create especially with regard to children. This link was established when the researchers found that children living in urban centers with relatively high levels of pollution were at a significantly higher risk for developing cancer. The study has values adjusted for factors which could tamper with the results. However, even after the adjustment, the risks remained high for children living in areas where there was a high level of pollution. This study is certainly a revelation since we often discuss global warming in the context of animals and rising sea levels but there is also a visible and immediate impact of the pollution spread by human activity on the planet. That impact is the negative effect pollution has on our health and the health of our children who are defenseless against it. The government and our civil authorities should do a lot more to stop the situation. They need to ensure that we do not have to suffer the negative consequences of the progress we have made. If we do not do anything about it, the problem would only multiply. At the present, we have little choice in how we can reduce air pollution levels. Of course, we can have Individual actions or even drives coming from small groups aimed at reducing pollution. However, these may never have the impact that government policy changes can. In addition to trying and reducing air pollution levels, more research on the topic is also required. Without the proper scientific data, we may make the wrong conclusions. This was suggested in the research study itself. Additional information and research on the topic is necessary. That would gives us better tools with which we can handle pollution and its impact on our lives. Even now,

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Esoc Board Essay Example for Free

The Esoc Board Essay As mentioned in Lecture 3 and the textbook, most logic circuits today are built using programmable logic devices (PLDs). These devices allow circuits to be built directly onto single chips, without the need for interconnection of separate, single purpose ICs. The eSOC II (electronic System-on-a-Chip) board is designed to allow a direct interface between the Quartus II software and the Altera Cyclone II EP2C8 FPGA. The board provides an interface to the chip, along with supporting interface hardware. Details about the construction and use of the eSOC II board are available in the eSOC II Users Guide supplied with the board. The following is a summary of data taken from that Guide. The eSOC II board is shown in Figure 1 (taken from the User Guide from Arches Computing Systems). The board contains the Altera FPGA (in the center), a 24 MHz clock source (U8 to the left of the FPGA), and numerous input switches and output displays. Figure 1 – eSOC II Board (from User Guide September 6, 2006) There are three types of input switches, single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) toggle switches (S1 and S2), debounced push-button (SPST) switches (DB0 and DB1), and non-debounced push-button switches (B0 – B3). Bouncing is a mechanical effect where a switch rapidly alternates between â€Å"on† and â€Å"off† when pressed as the metal contacts make and break connection as the parts â€Å"bounce† off each other. A debounced switch is designed so that any closure produces a single on to off or off to on indication. The output features include red LEDs (RED0 – RED7), green LEDs (GRN0 – GRN7) and two seven-segment displays (Digit0 and Digit1). The FPGA uses a random access memory (RAM) technology. This will be explained in a later course, for now the key concept is that a program is stored and maintained only as long as the power is applied (like a document you forget to save, the data disappears when the power is removed). This means that every time the eSOC II board is turned off, the program in the FPGA is lost. There is a method to save a program using a different type of memory that is on the board. This memory, U3, stores the program even after power is removed. This feature will be explored in a later course.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Gossip Girl Review :: essays research papers

Book Review ‘Gossip Girl’ by Cecily von Ziegesar Gossip Girl is a book for people who crave glamour, style and riches. The novel is written by Cecily von Ziegesar, a 25 year old self proclaimed gossip girl herself. She loosely bases the story on her own experiences growing up in the Upper East side of Manhattan. Gossip Girl, the novel, is set in contemporary Upper East Side, Manhattan, New York. It tells the story of a group of high school seniors whose parents happen to be some of the most glamorous people in New York and tells what their day to day lives are like. The book’s main character is Blair Waldorf. Blair is the bitchiest and coolest girl in the Upper East Side crowd. She lives her life thinking that she is in some kind of old time movie where she is the leading actress and her boyfriend, Nate, is her leading man. Blair and her close knit group of friends are the main focus of the book. Gossip Girl also talks of Serena van de Woodsen who is described as the girl all boys want and the girl all girls want to be. Serena used to be Blair’s best friend until she spent a year at boarding school. Serena discovers that Blair no longer wants to spend time with her and that Blair believes Serena is some kind of threat to her social status. Blair ignores Serena and goes out of her way to make Serena feel unwelcome on her return. An example of this is how Blair treats Serena in the cafeteria at lunchtime one day. When Serena walks in she waves at Blair (who is already seated). Blair sees her but chooses not to acknowledge her. When Serena has her food and sits down, Blair and her new friends make up excuses as to why they have to go and leave Serena sitting at the table all by herself.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Health Care Careers Diagram and Summary Essay

What is a Physical Therapist do? Each of us has an important role in health care field whether a Pharmacist, Technician, Lab Scientist, Therapist, Nurses, Doctors, and other health care professionals. They have one purpose to provide the best quality of care to the patients with compassionate and respect. They are guided by the rules and guidelines set up by the state and federal government to maintain proper standards and update the techniques concerning healthcare delivery. Career Description. Physical therapists sometimes referred to as PTs, help people who have injuries or illnesses improve their movement and manage their pain (Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012). PT plays an important role in rehabilitation and gives treatment to the patients with chronic conditions or injuries. They diagnose the patients’ dysfunctional movements by watching them walk, stand, balance, coordination, strength, range of motion and many more. Physical therapists work as part of a healthcare team, overseeing the work of physical therapist assistants and aides and consulting with physicians and surgeons and other specialists (Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012). They work in wellness-programs to encourage everyone for more active lifestyles. They also establish appropriate plan of care, depending on the patients condition whether it is a neurological case, orthopedic case, sports injury, pediatrics, geriatrics, sports, and others. Services Provided. Physical therapist services are wide range from acute care hospital, sub-acute care, skilled nursing facility, home health, and outpatient care. Their work varies with the type of patients they serve. Orthopedic/Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is one of the services they provided, whereas they focus on all types of musculoskeletal conditions of the entire spine and extremities. Another one is Vestibular Rehabilitation, which is more on balance, dizziness, motion sensitivity, and vertigo rehab. Workforce roles within the services and products. The rehabilitation team is composed of a physical therapist, physical therapist assistant and rehabilitation aide. Usually physical therapist is the head of the team with at least a bachelors, doctorate, or masters’ degree in physical therapy. They do the initial evaluations and assessment of the patient upon admission. They also establish the care plan (long-term goals and short-term, as well as set up the treatment guidelines and parameters. The PTA’s job is to carry out the treatment following the plan care set by the therapist, unless the treatment requires a specialization by a PT for example, manual mobilization, myofascial release techniques, and many more. The rehab aide’s job is to help maintain the rehab facility or gym. They could also assist in treatments with direct supervision by PT. They could also help by doing aftercare after the PT or PTA works with the patient, or do desk jobs like scheduling patients, whereas no degree or license is required to work as a rehab aide. Impact of Physical therapist on the health care organizations. The therapist importance and influence on the health care system is very crucial, by doing therapy they help and guide the patients to return on their prior level of function and achieve their max potential. They also help prevent re-injury because of poor management of the healing process, by setting up the right exercises, depending on the patients level, stage of healing, and comorbidities that comes with the patient. Therapist also help by giving an alternative form of disease healing and pain management, for example a patient who has arthritic pain on B knees that has been dependent on strong pain medicine. Therapy can use physical agents and modalities, like heat, cold, ultrasound, and right amount of exercises to engage week muscles and promote improved mobility. Conclusion Health care providers have different roles in health care industry. Each of them has a special purpose on how to give a better treatment, care, and diagnosis to the patients. Through proper education and training, they will be able to provide what the patients needs. Health care professionals have one goal, which is to make the patient better and help them live a quality and healthy life. Appendix A: Figure 1 – Diagram of Physical Therapist roles and functions in the health care community. Figure 1 describe as the role of MD, PT, PTA, and rehab aide with regard to patient care. First the referring MD makes the prescription for the patient to be admitted to physical therapy. The physical therapist checks the prescription initiate evaluation, assessment, and establish plan of care. The PT could proceed with the treatment himself or pass to the PTA. The PTA’s job is to initiate the treatment program following the goals and treatment parameters set up by the PT. Rehab aide assist the PT or PTA during treatment and helps with scheduling patient visits as well as monitor insurance coverage for the patient. References Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012, April 6). What Physical Therapists Do. Retrieved from PT1. (2013). Physical Therapy One. Retrieved from

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Northern Renaissance Art

The epoch of Renaissance in general was an age of humanism characterized by a new spirit of freedom, a new sense of the individual, a new realism in visualizing nature and the emergence of the artist as an individual creator. The Renaissance art traditions developed in Italy and then traveled to the north of the Alps and there became known as â€Å"Northern Renaissance†. Though the Northern Renaissance displays some differences from that of the South, it shares with the Italians in the three essential Renaissance qualities, namely, â€Å"a new interest in the world of fact, a new acceptance of that world as having independent value for artistic creation irrespective of any super sensuous presuppositions, and the separation of the several arts†. (Rowley, Sarton, Schevill and Thompson, 111) However, these qualities exhibited themselves in the north and south in quite different appearances because of the fundamental differences between the Gothic and the Classic traditions. Italy's climate, customs, and racial tendencies would never permit to assimilate the Gothic tradition, and the northern countries could never forget it. For example, in northern tradition we cannot find the mathematically exact perspective to reveal the space and volume, as well as the interplay of light and shadow is replaced by the scrupulous work with light and colors. North Renaissance portraits became living entities through the new realism which could render the detailed peculiarities of the individual and courtly approach and this trait derives from Gothic style. For example, Jan van Eyck's realism led to an examination of the details of actuality, so that he painted portraits that are convincing likenesses. To illustrate how the concept of Art Nova was reflected in the works of northern artists it would be appropriate to discuss some of them. In general the realism of the north as Rowley and his colleagues put it â€Å"was more discursive and more minute than that of the south†. (114) Jan van Eyck's painting of Arnolfini and his wife is packed with incidentals, the dog, slippers, pillows, fruit, fly whisk, chandelier, and the mirror which repeats them all again, inscription on the wall of the richly furnished room recording that Jan ‘was here’. The new element of light, which seems diffused through the room, is regarded as illumination for each separate object. Jan van Eyck gives us a realism that is more than real. In Eyck's Virgin and Child with Chancellor Rolin realism showed itself in a microscopic examination of objects. Each hair and each pore of the skin was scrutinized so carefully that the visual unity of the whole was lost in the focus upon small detail. The study of surfaces results in the qualities of things, the masterful use of light and color hues affected by light which makes the work different from Italian Renaissance. The most surprising characteristic of northern realism is the absence of movement. After the dramatic gesticulation of Giotto’s compositions and the Internationalists, the figures of Van Eyck, seem to be absolutely frozen. Perhaps much of the â€Å"sanctified mood† (Rowley, Sarton, Schevill, and Thompson, 116) of Van Eyck's paintings is created by the fact that his people never look at anything, which gives them a curiously removed quality. Another artist of the period, Robert Campin, was one of the earliest and greatest masters of Flemish painting. Characterized by a naturalistic conception of form and representation of the objects of daily life, Campin's work marks the break with the prevailing International Gothic style and prefigures the achievements of Jan van Eyck and the painters of the Northern Renaissance. One of his masterpieces is the Mà ©rode Altarpiece, a triptych of the Annunciation with the donors and St. Joseph on the wings. The Virgin is portrayed in a setting of bourgeois realism in which interior furnishings are rendered with the frank and loving attention to detail traditional to the Art Nova of Flemish art. Campin's passion for the natural and domestic world dominates his picturing of the sacred story. This feature to depict sacred motives within mundane context also testifies to the difference between South and North as regards Renaissance. Campin meticulously depicts even the tiniest trifle in a technique which combines semi-transparent oil overlay on water-based opaque pigments that results in the creation of space. Yet Campin’s work includes several symbolic elements like the brass laver or lily flower, both referring to Mary's purity. The innovations of the Northern Renaissance were apparent not only in painting but also in sculpture art. Thus Claus Sluter was the influential master of early Netherlandish sculpture, established highly individual monumental, naturalistic forms. The grandeur of Sluter's forms can only be paralleled in Flemish painting by the van Eycks and Robert Campin discussed above. The works of Claus Sluter infuse realism with spirituality and monumental grandeur. Sluter was an innovator in art, and thus it would be just to apply the concept of Art Nova to his works too. He moved beyond the prevailing French taste for graceful figures, delicate and elegant movement, and fluid falls of drapery. His sculptures are weighty, massive, dominantly large and balanced forms. The six-sided Well of Moses, presents six life-sized prophets holding books and scrolls. The head and torso fragment of Christ from the Calvary reveal a power and intensity of restrained expression that conveys overwhelming grandeur. Suffering and resignation are mingled, a result of the way the brow is knitted, though the lower part of the face, narrow and exhausted, is calm and without muscular stress. The figures of the composition dominate the architectural framework but also reinforce the feeling of support that the structure provides through their largeness of movement. Sluter's latest preserved work is the tomb of Philip the Bold consisting of forty figures, each about 16 inches high and made up the mourning procession. Sluter conceived of the figures as weepers, of whom no two are alike; some are openly expressing their sorrow, others are containing their grief, but all are robed in heavy wool, draping garments that occasionally veil a bowed head and face to convey a hidden mourning. Sluter epitomized in sculpture the growing awareness of an individualized nature with an enduring grandeur. Reference List: Harbison, Craig. The Mirror of the Artist: Northern Renaissance Art in its Historical Context, New York: Abrams, 1995. Rowley, George et al. The Civilization of the Renaissance. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1929.      

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Kachinas

Native Americans have inhabited this country for many generations. We see so many things that are influenced by the Native Americans and we find ourselves in awe of the independence of these peoples and the culture that they have come from. When we look at art through the eyes of the Native American we should see a functional and usable art. Art was not for aesthetic reasons; it had real purpose. The folk art that came from these cultures were for religious and moral reasons. Everything that these people had had a necessity in their group. The Kachina is one of these necessities. The Kachinas were and still are an important part of the religion of the Pueblo Indians, but I will focus on Hopi Indians. The Kachinas were friendly spirits much like our Christian Saints; however there were some evil Kachinas that punish those who disobey Hopi law. The Kachinas play an important role in the various religious ceremonies, many of which take the form of dances and chants. When a Hopi man dresses himself in the costume of a particular Kachina, he believes the spirit of that Kachina has replaced his personal identity. The ceremonies ask the Kachinas to bring plentiful crops, or give the people of the village good health and luck. Hopi children believe in Kachinas just as American children believe in Santa Clause. In the ceremonies, the children aren't supposed to recognize their fathers, uncles or friends who are taking the role of the Kachinas. And as Santa brings gifts to children, certain Kachinas bring Kachina dolls, fruits, sweets, and other surprises. Kachina dolls are given to the children not as toys, but as something to be treasured and studied so that they may become familiar with the various spirits that are an important part of their religion. The phenomena of Kachina are relatively new. The religion of the Hopi has not always been in place. As we know, religion is put into place to keep order with in a group o... Free Essays on Kachinas Free Essays on Kachinas Native Americans have inhabited this country for many generations. We see so many things that are influenced by the Native Americans and we find ourselves in awe of the independence of these peoples and the culture that they have come from. When we look at art through the eyes of the Native American we should see a functional and usable art. Art was not for aesthetic reasons; it had real purpose. The folk art that came from these cultures were for religious and moral reasons. Everything that these people had had a necessity in their group. The Kachina is one of these necessities. The Kachinas were and still are an important part of the religion of the Pueblo Indians, but I will focus on Hopi Indians. The Kachinas were friendly spirits much like our Christian Saints; however there were some evil Kachinas that punish those who disobey Hopi law. The Kachinas play an important role in the various religious ceremonies, many of which take the form of dances and chants. When a Hopi man dresses himself in the costume of a particular Kachina, he believes the spirit of that Kachina has replaced his personal identity. The ceremonies ask the Kachinas to bring plentiful crops, or give the people of the village good health and luck. Hopi children believe in Kachinas just as American children believe in Santa Clause. In the ceremonies, the children aren't supposed to recognize their fathers, uncles or friends who are taking the role of the Kachinas. And as Santa brings gifts to children, certain Kachinas bring Kachina dolls, fruits, sweets, and other surprises. Kachina dolls are given to the children not as toys, but as something to be treasured and studied so that they may become familiar with the various spirits that are an important part of their religion. The phenomena of Kachina are relatively new. The religion of the Hopi has not always been in place. As we know, religion is put into place to keep order with in a group o...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Narrative Essay Ideas and Advice

Narrative Essay Ideas and Advice Narrative Essay Ideas and Advice A narrative essay is a person anecdote or story. It is usually written in the first person and almost always is an account of the writer’s personal experience. Writing a narrative essay allows students to express themselves creatively and address issues that they have personally experienced. These essays are quite popular among students as it is impossible to be factually wrong about a personal story. This limits the need for research. This does not mean that there are no pitfalls that exist, however. For example, before a student can even begin to write, they must have a few interesting narrative essay ideas. They must also use good spelling and grammar, descriptive language, and write with a purpose in order for their essay to be deemed a success. With this in mind, we have created this post with two goals in mind. The first is to provide students with a lot of great essay ideas. The second is to help each student reading this post to write an organized, well-formatted, and extremely readable essay. Great Ideas for a Narrative Essay Here are some ideas that you can use as food for thought as   you begin selecting the perfect topic for your narrative essay: What has been your best experience so far as a college student? Write about a time when you were really frightened? Describe meeting your current boyfriend or girlfriend. Has anybody thrown you a surprise party? What was that like? Describe your favorite place What did you do on your last road trip? Plan the ideal week long vacation What was the last thing you did with your best friend When was the last time that you were completely unsure of how to handle a problem? What was the best piece of advice you ever received? How did you use it? Have you ever traveled to a foreign country? Have you ever climbed a mountain, gone backpacking, or experienced some other travel adventure? Technical Advice on Writing a Narrative Essay A student who has a great idea and a creative mind is already off to a good start when it comes to writing a great narrative essay. However, before they get started, it is very important to think about some technical issues. A big part of this is spelling and grammar, but there is more to it than that. Students must put a lot of thought into the way that they are going to tell their story to their readers. One way to write a narrative essay is to use a storytelling format. If a student wants to use this format that is fine. They simply must include all of the elements that one would expect in a story. This means a plot, climax, introduction, and conclusion. Another option that students have is to write their narrative essay as a classically formatted essay. This would mean starting with an introductory paragraph that includes a thesis. The thesis could be related to a lesson that was learned or a conclusion the writer reaches after experiencing something. How to Begin a Narrative Essay Starting an essay can be quite difficult. This is no different when it comes to the narrative essay. Sometimes the best way to begin is with a bit of a sneak peak. Here is an example: I felt my stomach jump into my chest when I saw the red and blue lights flashing behind me. What I didn't know was that the speeding ticket I was about to receive would be the best thing that ever happened to me. This is an easy and excellent way to kick off any narrative essay.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Development of Canals in the Industrial Revolution

The Development of Canals in the Industrial Revolution Water was an important method of transport in Britain prior to the industrial revolution  and was used heavily for freight. Basically, to have a working economy things had to be moved from the place of production to the place of need, and vice versa, and when travel was based on horses, no matter how good the road, there were limits on products, in terms of freshness or quantity. Water, which could take more, and faster, was crucial. There were three key aspects of water borne trade: the sea, the coast, and rivers. Sea Carriage: Overseas trade required large ships and was important for importing and exporting goods and raw materials. Several key British ports, including the hub of the nation in London, had been growing on trade even before the boom of the revolution, and many traders had built public buildings. As the revolution got underway and Britain experienced an export boom in the late eighteenth century, wealth was reinvested in refurbishing ports, and they expanded greatly.Coastal Trade: Moving heavy goods at sea along the coast of Britain was much cheaper than moving the same items along the road network, and coastal trade was a key aspect of Britain’s economy. Between 1650 and 1750, i.e. before the industrial revolution, half a million metric tons of coal was moved this way from Newcastle in the north to London in the south. Foodstuffs could be moved fairly quickly through coastal trade, and it helped provincial trade. The east coast, with a sheltered, smooth sea, had the great est use, and most early industries like iron, tin, and grain depended on this method. Navigable Rives: Britain made major use of its river network for transport as well as waterwheel energy, but there were problems. Rivers didn’t always- or rarely- went where you wanted your goods to go, and they were affected by drought and erosion, as well as other industries being in the way. Many were simply unnavigable. People had tried to improve the river network by dredging, widening, and cutting past meanders by the start of the eighteenth century, and canals became the logical next step. Indeed, it was river improvements that gave the engineers of the canals their start. However, lots of important industrial areas in Britain, such as Birmingham, didn’t have any water links and were held back. If there wasnt a river, and you werent on the coast, you had transport problems. The solution was to be found in canals, a man-made route in which you could (mostly) direct the route. Expensive, but if done right, a way of making large profits. The Solution: Canals The first British canal to follow a totally new route (the first British canal was the Sankey Brooke Navigation, but this followed a river) was the Bridgewater canal from collieries in Worsley to Manchester and was opened in 1761 by the colliery’s owner, the Duke of Bridgewater. This reduced the Duke’s transport costs by fifty percent, vastly cheapening his coal and opening up a whole new market. This showed to the rest of Britain’s industrialists what canals could achieve, and it also demonstrated both what engineering could do, and what wide-ranging enterprise could create: the Duke’s money had come from agriculture. By 1774 over thirty-three government acts had been passed providing for canals, all in the Midlands where there were no comparative or realistic alternative means of water transport, and a boom continued. Canals became the perfect answer to regional needs, as you could design their path. The Economic Impact of Canals Canals allowed a greater volume of goods to be moved more precisely, and for much less, opening up new markets in terms of location and affordability. Seaports could now be connected to inland trade. Canals allowed for the greater exploitation of coal reserves as the coal could be moved further, and sold cheaper, allowing a new market to form. Industries could now relocate to coalfields or move to towns, and the materials and products could be moved either way. Of over 150 canal acts from 1760 to 1800, 90 were for coal purposes. At the time- before the railways- only canals could have coped with the swiftly rising demand for coal from industries like iron. Perhaps the most visible economic effect of canals was around Birmingham, which was now joined to the British freight transport system and grew hugely as a result. Canals stimulated new ways of raising capital, as the majority of canals were built as joint stock companies, with each company having to apply for an act of Parliament. Once created, they could sell shares and buy land, bringing in widespread investment, not just local. Only a tenth of the funding came from the elite of wealthy industrialists, and the first modern company management structures were put in place. Capital began to flow around the constructions. Civil engineering also advanced, and this would be fully exploited by the railways. The Social Impact of Canals The creation of canals created a new, paid, labor force called ‘Navvies’ (short for Navigators), increasing spending power at a time when industry needed markets, and each canal needed people to load and unload. However, people tended to fear navvies, accusing them of taking local jobs. Indirectly, there were also new opportunities in mining, hardware, and other industries, for instance, the potteries, as markets for goods opened right up. The Problems of Canals Canals still had their problems. Not all areas were suitable for them, and places like Newcastle had relatively few. There was no central planning and the canals weren’t part of an organized national network, coming in different widths and depths, and were largely limited to the Midlands and North West of England. Canal transport could be expensive, as some companies monopolized areas and charged high tolls, and competition from rival companies could cause two canals to be built along the same route. They were also slow, so things had to be ordered well in advance, and they could not make passenger travel cost effective. The Decline of the Canals Canal companies never solved the problems of speed, making the invention of a faster method of transport almost inevitable. When the railways were introduced in the 1830s people felt that the advancement would spell the immediate end of the canals as a major network for freight. However, canals continued to remain competitive for a number of years and it wasn’t until the 1850s that railways really replaced the canals as the primary method of transport in Britain.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Human Resource Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Human Resource - Research Paper Example It has been noticed that, issues of sexual preferences and gender are much more sensitive because individuals who have different preferences feel discriminated in many avenues of life (Burns and Krehely, 2005). Most organizations proclaim that they do not carry out any form of discrimination, but in practice they do and violate the rights of the employees. This is exactly what happened with Oiler. Oilers contributions to the organization as well as his work record were not taken into consideration when making the decision regarding his termination. Furthermore, the disturbing fact was that the laws of the federation and the state did not have any protection for the transgendered employees. Therefore, not only were employee rights of Oiler violated, he did not receive any protection from the state or federation either. 2. What do you see as the consequences of organizations that punish employees for certain off-the-job behaviors? Explain. Punishing employees for certain off-the-job be haviors can create a negative perception among the employees as well as the public because the organization does not practice equality and non-discrimination (Weiss, 2007). Termination of the employees for such reasons would be a negative publicity as clients and employees would exercise caution in approaching the organization in the future.

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Forces of Capitalism and Global Economic Interdependence Research Paper

The Forces of Capitalism and Global Economic Interdependence - Research Paper Example According to the United Nations Human Development Index, the development includes a variety of attributes and is not solely an economic consideration. The Human Development Index, or HDI, explores development using a wide net and combines a variety of social indicators in its index to account for development including life expectancy, rates of literacy, GDP per capita, educational opportunity, standards of living, and opportunities for advances for women, etc. HDI is used to measure the development of a particular country and focuses on a variety of indicators to do so. Sustainable development, the belief that development can sustain itself, promotes development not only now but also in the future. Development which is long-term and not focuses only on the immediacy is said to be sustainable. The UN Human Development Index explores the sustainability of development and views development through a wide lens. Since the purpose of this analysis is economic development however, the follo wing will focus more on economic modes of development, while keeping in mind the important indexes put forth by the United Nations. The following will discuss capitalist development as the primary engine of economic growth in a global era (United Nations 2008). Capitalism is arguably the most well-known model of economic development and growth and is responsible for the globalization of international trade, foreign capital and the growth and development of much of the Western world (excluding Cuba and including Australia, which is commonly included in economic analyses of the â€Å"West†).

The First Time I Felt in Love Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The First Time I Felt in Love - Essay Example Joe was talking to me but I could not hear a word he was saying. I just looked at the girl he was with, and could not believe my eyes. Eventually he introduced her to me. Her name was Alexandra and she had long, light brown hair that she kept tucking behind her ear in a childish way, as if she wanted to concentrate more on our conversation. She had kind eyes, with an unusual golden brown color that matched her hair, and a dreamy look. Alexandra seemed like an exotic name to me. I wondered where her family came from, to give her such a beautiful name to match her stunning appearance. She was almost exactly the same age as Joe and me, but somehow she seemed older. I don’t remember how Joe introduced her, but I do remember how she looked at me kindly and pulled me into the entrance hall, out of the pouring rain. Her touch was like fire on my elbow, and I was mesmerized by her beautiful smile. If there is such a thing as love at first sight, then surely this was it. Joe seemed not to notice how amazing this girl was, and certainly she was not at all proud or arrogant, as so many attractive girls tend to be. Her skin was extremely pale, and she had long, slender fingers that moved gracefully when she talked. She was about a head shorter than me, and very slim. Something about her reminded me of a deer, or a gazelle, because she moved very lightly on her feet. She wore quite ordinary clothes, and I noticed that her sneakers were well worn, and decidedly casual in style. Normally I prefer girls who wear smart clothes and makeup, but Alexandra was different. Her face looked perfectly natural, and every expression that passed over her features seemed to fit perfectly with her whole being. When she smiled, her eyes smiled too, and she had a slight twist to the mouth that suggested she knew more than she was saying, but there was nothing bad in that. This incredible truthfulness is perhaps her most startling quality. After a while Joe had to leave for a sports sess ion, and I could not believe my luck that I was now alone with Alexandra. The overwhelming feeling that swept over me was anxiety. I desperately wanted to make a good impression, but somehow it was difficult to speak. My mouth was dry and I could hardly think of anything to say. I didn’t want to make a fool of myself, and so I said very little at first. Fortunately she was more confident and she started asking questions about me. We discovered that our birthdays were in the same month, and she told me that she was moving into my school because her father had just been posted to a new job here. Her voice was gentle, with a light, and happy tone, but still quite serious at the same time. We went to the local cafe, at my suggestion, and I chose a spot in the corner where I could sit opposite her and look into her eyes. The fear began to disappear and instead I could feel a warmth inside my body, as if a big heater had been turned on in the room, to remove all traces of the dampn ess outside. She made me feel calm and strong, and I think this is because we talked so naturally together, like best friends from the very first moment. I watched her drink a large cup of milky coffee. The cup seemed huge and heavy in her hand, and I immediately felt protective towards her. On that day of our first meeting I hardly dared hope that she would agree to be my girlfriend, and so I just sat there drinking in the loveliness of her smile, and

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Creative Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Creative Accounting - Essay Example It has been pointed out that conflicting interests of shareholders and managers often lead to the use of creating accounting. After having successfully assembled the resources, the company is also required to assure all its stakeholders that it is indeed making good use of the resources in a manner benefitting all the stakeholders. In fact creative accounting is done very much within the legal framework and the prevailing accounting standards, but quite often done to camouflage the actual picture. It won't be an exaggeration if we say that creative accounting is done with the help of the weaker points in the law of the land and the accounting standards. Creating accounting has also been termed as 'window dressing', 'aggressive accounting' or 'fiscal gimmickry' by analysts from time to time. People from outside the company as well as stakeholders from within the company make use of financial accounting details to arrive at a decision regarding their decision to continue with the company or look for a better opportunity. The shareholders will go through the financial details in order to figure out the profit margins and percentage their own earnings in the form of dividends, interests or bonus shares. Some of the inferences that could be drawn using financial accounting information include; Creating accounting is therefore an effort to influence all these ind... v. Pointing out the lapses in utilizing the financial resources judiciously vi. Putting a stop to corrupt practices and different types of pilferages taking place within the organization vii. Ensuring that the accounting practices are in tune with GAAP viii. Assessing the need for further inputs in the form of finances, workforce or other resources for ensuring functioning of the organization Creating accounting is therefore an effort to influence all these indicators in order to remain out of immediate trouble. Manipulation in maintaining the account books is one such practice, use of which by some companies has come to light, during the last couple of years. Accounting as such is used for maintaining the account of quantitative information about the transactions involving finances and resources of a company. In other words it is the process of identifying, measuring, handling and communicating the financial information about different economic entities for being used by the concerned parties. Showcasing healthy account books in the public domain certainly helps the company and its management in attracting better reviews and commitments for the future growth of the company. This often results in managements resorting to creative accounting practices, which is mainly done to influence the opinion about the company and sometimes to conceal some unethical practices of the m anagement or the company. Some of the widely used practices for manipulating the account books include; Making use of the depreciation i.e. by profits can be inflated by increasing the useful life of an asset and thus spreading the charge over a longer period of life. For example a company can spread over the useful life of its

Business simulation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business simulation - Essay Example Flipping a coin and rolling a dice give possible outcomes of a finite set. A discrete distribution is thus described by the finite possible outcomes sets, which describe a discrete distribution. Test results defining fail or pass and natures of parts demarcated by types or numbers are also examples of discrete distributions. When the possible numbers of outcomes are indeterminable, a continuous distribution occurs. For instance the time taken during a journey is a depiction of a continuous distribution because different marginal times are taken for different parts of the journey same as the time consumed in undertaking a manual activity. In these cases however much time may be similar, when further condensed into decimal place measurements, differences are inevitably notable. Distributions usually have finite lower and upper limits implying that they can be bounded. It is possible creating one’s own distributions with SIMUL8 using provided definite classical statistical distributions. This is a continuous distribution that is bounded on the lower limit and is used in the representation of the timings between the occurrences of breakdowns and timings between unsystematic occurrences, such as arrival times into the system, where there is random distribution and independence of the arrival sequences. The lower bounding of this discrete distribution is 0 and it is used where the instance of the reoccurrence of an event is known in the case where a single trial is repeated over and over, for example in deciphering the number of items requisitioned in an inventory or items on a batch. Is a Geometric distribution bounded on the lower limit at 0 and is useful in independent trial cases to return the total failures numbers before realization of success, and is usable in controlling ticketing problems, marketing survey returns and in meteorological models. This is a continuous distribution that has bounding on the lower limit and is used in generation

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Creative Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Creative Accounting - Essay Example It has been pointed out that conflicting interests of shareholders and managers often lead to the use of creating accounting. After having successfully assembled the resources, the company is also required to assure all its stakeholders that it is indeed making good use of the resources in a manner benefitting all the stakeholders. In fact creative accounting is done very much within the legal framework and the prevailing accounting standards, but quite often done to camouflage the actual picture. It won't be an exaggeration if we say that creative accounting is done with the help of the weaker points in the law of the land and the accounting standards. Creating accounting has also been termed as 'window dressing', 'aggressive accounting' or 'fiscal gimmickry' by analysts from time to time. People from outside the company as well as stakeholders from within the company make use of financial accounting details to arrive at a decision regarding their decision to continue with the company or look for a better opportunity. The shareholders will go through the financial details in order to figure out the profit margins and percentage their own earnings in the form of dividends, interests or bonus shares. Some of the inferences that could be drawn using financial accounting information include; Creating accounting is therefore an effort to influence all these ind... v. Pointing out the lapses in utilizing the financial resources judiciously vi. Putting a stop to corrupt practices and different types of pilferages taking place within the organization vii. Ensuring that the accounting practices are in tune with GAAP viii. Assessing the need for further inputs in the form of finances, workforce or other resources for ensuring functioning of the organization Creating accounting is therefore an effort to influence all these indicators in order to remain out of immediate trouble. Manipulation in maintaining the account books is one such practice, use of which by some companies has come to light, during the last couple of years. Accounting as such is used for maintaining the account of quantitative information about the transactions involving finances and resources of a company. In other words it is the process of identifying, measuring, handling and communicating the financial information about different economic entities for being used by the concerned parties. Showcasing healthy account books in the public domain certainly helps the company and its management in attracting better reviews and commitments for the future growth of the company. This often results in managements resorting to creative accounting practices, which is mainly done to influence the opinion about the company and sometimes to conceal some unethical practices of the m anagement or the company. Some of the widely used practices for manipulating the account books include; Making use of the depreciation i.e. by profits can be inflated by increasing the useful life of an asset and thus spreading the charge over a longer period of life. For example a company can spread over the useful life of its

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Letters of Recommendation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Letters of Recommendation - Essay Example His valuable contributions with the past employers speak about his personality and attitude towards work. He has proven ability in motivating and interacting effectively with all levels of staff and management. I have noted him as a person having strong business acumen along with high level of moral and ethical standards. I felt Mr. has diverse skill sets such as mutual respect, good communication, cooperation, coordination, share responsibility required to become successful manager as well as to create a good team. He has an excellent understanding of audit review procedures, financial analysis, financial reconciliations, maintenance and control of general ledger that are specific to the profession. I sense that his technical expertise along with the leadership attitude will grant him all the desired success. Yours graduate business program would give him the golden opportunity to explore and unfold the art and craft of business profession. I have observed him setting himself reachable goals by generating new ideas, new strategies, gaining more experience, improving his skills and working on the weaknesses. Perhaps his strongest abilities are the way he manages the projects, the people and the situations. He would be a strong addition to your Business School. He has always been attracted towards scope and difficulty of tasks, decision-making competencies, room for independent action, job variability, ownership, work conditions and environment. I believe that this unique blend of experiences has made him a man with an original point of view. This blend has given him a broader perspective and a good understanding of life and a goal to aim for. He has consistently demonstrated the necessary skills in the past to handle the intense academic work required in your MBA program. I believe that being a part of your department would not only enhance his career opportunities, but also help him realize his

Monday, October 14, 2019

Porter Five Forces Starbucks Essay Example for Free

Porter Five Forces Starbucks Essay Starbucks, a cofee stores chain, serving million of coffee lovers worldwide every week, highlights ‘humanistic approach in doing business, value system of the company’ for its huge success. The company featuring ‘one of the best 100 companies to work for’ in Fortune Magazine several times speaks on its own about the satisfaction of the employees contributing towards its all time success. Providing a great work environment and treating every employee equally with self respect and dignity will take care of employee motivation according to Friedrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory, a content theory of Motivation, where ‘Hygiene’ and ‘Motivator’ factors are kept intact for employee to work and focus upon. By creating a culture of challenging employees to do their best, the company encourages employees in participating in setting goals, where as difficult goals extracting best performance at times, and specific goals extracting guaranteed performance according to ’ Goal setting Theory’ by Edwin A. Locke, a process theory of Motivation. The company’s motivational program for its employees consists of â€Å"a special blend of employee benefits† and a work / personal life program that focuses on the physical, emotional, mental and creative aspects of each individual which covers the salient features of Motivation theories by Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs of different levels as well as by Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory (explaining about needs for existence, relatedness and growth). The company always seeks from its employees what they want individually, and attempts to give work / life solutions and this upholds Motivation process theories Vroom’s expectancy theory and J.Stanley Adams Equity theory as employees put effort as per expectations and objectives and for clear and quantified material benefits. Starbucks trusts all employees, gives freedom of expression, openness, participation and contribution towards the goals of self as well as for company realising the positive aspec ts of Motivational theory by Mc Greg or – Theory x Theory Y – which ultimately aims at delight of internal customers, i.e., employees (called as partners) and keeps going and growing.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay Compare and contrast the significance of the concept womens virginity and fidelity between the Qing Dynasty and Contemporary China, with an attempt to analyse the causes of different attitudes and behaviours in these 2 different eras. Abstract This study focuses on the Chinese womens chastity, especially in the area of Virginity and Fidelity. The comparison and contrast between Qing Dynasty and Contemporary China is examined, with an attempt to find out what possible causes had led to the different perspectives on womens chastity. Qing is regarded as an idol of womens chastity in the entire Chinese history. However, it seemed that the modern youth tend to care less about womens virginity and fidelity. Women seemed no longer devote their entire lives to serve their husbands and in-laws. Apart from the changes in the regions of culture, globalization, and education, the historical progress cannot be ignored as well as governmental policies Introduction With the emergence of the first sex museum for women in China, the perception of sex has begun to attract more attentions of Chinese people (China Daily, 2008). Meanwhile, the roles women played over centuries have vitally contributed to the historical progress of sex. Since ancient China, women are often regarded as a property of men in the patriarchal society (Jaschok and Miers, 1994). According to Marx and Engels (1985), a patriarchal husband à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦sees in his wife a mere instrument of production of prostitution both public and private (1848:101). Nevertheless, accompanied by complex causes, women increasingly gain more rights and equalities in the relationship with men in contemporary China. That is, in comparison with the womens strict virtue in the old days of China, Qing Dynasty in particular, Modern Chinese women as well as men tend to be more open and unfastened to the idea of virginity and fidelity (Ko, Haboush and Piggott, 2003; China Daily, 2003; America Online, 1995; Zhou, 1989). However, many have argued that the root of womens chastity is still solid to convert in China nowadays (Peoples Daily, 2003). There are two remarkable cases that emerged more lately, which to a great extent explain the conflicting value of womens chastity in modern China. A recent report (Richburg, 2010) demonstrated that there is a growing trend of hymen restoration of Chinese women, which they could return to the virgin by the surgical procedure. Similarly, a considered cheaper and easier way of being a pretended virgin is popular and well taken as well as the hymen restoration surgery. According to Gu (2011), the artificial hymen is appeared as a little piece of semi-transparent tissue that you put this into the vagina, itll dissolve and expand. Have sex in about 20 to 30 minutes, and youll bleed'. As a modern Chinese woman, the movement of womens right draws my attention. I am particularly interested in the area of womens chastity, which on one hand is assumed to have a great progress in contrast to Qing dynasty. In regard to the factors that had brought to this evolution, it is hypothesized that apart from the ideological change of the significance of womens chastity, several effects such as the development of technology, governmental policies, education, globalization, and media have likewise led to the different attitudes and behaviours during these two different eras; and on another hand, it is believed that to a certain extent, the attitudes towards womens chastity in Qing dynasty have impacted on modern China. As a consequence, I will focus on the comparison of the significance of the concept of womens virginity and fidelity in Qing Dynasty and Contemporary China, mainly by looking at the two periods of women: pre-marriage and post-marriage. Moreover, several major causes of different attitudes and behaviours in these two different eras will also be discussed respectively. Due to the limitation of time and condition, and the sensitivity of the research topic, the investigation is conducted inside the university campus. Four groups will be studied in order to see the differences between different genders and generations: UNNC girls, UNNC boys, their mothers, and their fathers. In addition, the research of Qing dynasty will be taken place mostly in the review of literatures. Literature Review The literature review will take the progress of the significance of the concept of womens chastity as a whole and continuing process. Thus, not only Qing dynasty and Contemporary China will be examined, the period (1900-2000) between Qing dynasty and Contemporary China is also important due to the fact that it had vital contributions to the development of womens right, which eventually led to the understanding of womens chastity in present China. The following reviews will be ordered generally according to the chronological sequence, and mainly focus on the Qing and the Republican China due to the limited recent researches on Modern Chinese womens chastity. 2.1 Qing Dynasty The traditional concept of chastity is tightly linked to the ideology of patriarchy. As a property of men in the patriarchal society, womens value was merely to breed the progeny and to satisfy men in sexuality. In order to assure the purity of the blood, the strict demand on chastity was therefore emerged. The traditional chastity devoted itself to two sections: virgin before marriage, and be faithful to ones husband unto death after marriage (Li, 2006; Zhou, 2003). As the ideology of cultural expression and the foundation of the family system in imperial China, Confucianism is generally the essential ideology of female virtue in Late Imperial China. Particularly the concept of filiality (xiao) and fidelity (jie) have had great impacts on Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). A good example is the foot binding in Qing which according to Mackie (1996), the actual purpose was to ensure womens fidelity. The so-called chastity cult, a way for women to demonstrate their ultimate moral responsibility to the patriline into which they married, was in the position of domination in Qing by honouring two female virtues: purity, similar to fidelity (jie), and martyrdom (commonly regarded as lie). Jie mainly referred to absolute fidelity and sexual purity to one husband, in which women remained their lifelong devotion to serve the husbands family. Compared to jie, lie was more towards the absolute commitment to fidelity and sexual purity often end up with death or suicide by the expected requirement of self-sacrifice. That is, there were usually merely two choices, both ending in misery for women or even young girls at the period: pain in death or suffering in life (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). However, in contrast of the widespread phenomena in early Qing which promoted both martyrdom and fidelity, the idea of fidelity seemed to be more preferable since the mid-Qing due to the expanded acceptance of filiality to husbands parents. Namely, widows were encouraged to fulfil their primary obligation- to serve parents-in-law and to raise the heirs (ibid). Yet, many had chosen to follow their husbands in death after accomplishing their expected duties (ibid). Theiss (2004) argues that womens chastity was often related to the human dignity in terms of being a person. In other words, majority of them found themselves no longer being a person in which they were offended even via slight harassments such as flirtation. As a consequence, numerous women were recorded chastity suicide during Qing. That is, womens self-awareness to the concept of chastity would lead to the path of decease (ibid). Except for the initial desire which was aiming to reveal a womans morality and humanity as a woman (Theiss, 2004; Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003), there were other existing outside factors that have indirectly resulted in womens chastity. On one hand, governmental policies such as encouragement, promotion, and punishment were considered as the principal elements of the flourish of chaste women in Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). For example, the penalty for women who commit adultery was way severe than for men (Brown, 1952). On the other hand, social pressure as well as education also impressively affected womens behaviours. In addition, widows might earn particular advantages, social respects and family honour, for instance (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). Apart from the possible causes that Ko and Haboush and Piggott (2003) discussed, Theiss (2004) further extends the range of potential motivations leading to female suicide in Qing. Firstly, familys attitude was crucial. The husbands or family members, especially in-laws, who refused or failed to report and express the outrages such as the issues of sexual harassment on the womens behalf due to two major reasons: family reputation and the threat from offenders, to a large extent led to the desperation of women. As a result, they usually turned to seek death. Furthermore, it is widely believed that fictions and dramas to some extent had driven women into the faith of supernatural revenge. For example, becoming ghosts assured them to have power to return and punish those who had harmed them (ibid). Moreover, by rewarding as chastity martyrs might lead to the damage of harassers family reputation (ibid). Nonetheless, it seems that the idea of womens chastity might have been over-emphasized by historians. Theiss (2004) accentuated that despite Qing Dynastys well-known chastity cult, not every woman was a fan of the female chastity. Plenty of women carried on adulterous affairs for years without the concern of their reputation. Additionally, according to her study, most rape victims including those who suffered extreme violence or gang rapes did not commit suicide (ibid). It is argued that even though some women were willing to stay chaste after their husbands death, the facts of financial problem often brought them back to reality and accept the remarriage. Sommer (2000) points out that the chastity was indeed unaffordable for many widows in Qing. They usually were willing to remarry quickly in the attempt of collecting enough capital to liquidate the debts of her former husband, or even to finance his interment. In other words, a widow might trade herself with the bride-price to her new husband in order to settle outstanding debts before the marriage. However, it is not guaranteed that those widows with property which left by their deceased husband could follow their willingness for being a chaste widow. In fact, they might provoke the envy of in-laws those who wanted to take over the property, and often were forced to take the arranged remarriage. Before the Xinhai Revolution, Chinese women only played a very marginal role (Lu, 1993), due to the reason that, as Raphals (1998) claimed, They were eternally oppressed, powerless, passive, and silent. Yet, influenced by Western cultures and revolutions, a group headed by Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Tan Sitong were gradually awakening to the issues of gender equity in the late Qing. They challenged the traditional idea of chastity and yearned to change the roles women played at the time. Their attentions were mainly focused on the campaigns of womens education and the freedom of marriage (Zhou, 2003; Chen, 2001). 2.2 The 20th Century After Xinhai Revolution, the Confucianism was remained popular for a short period under the support of the Northern Warlords. Similar to Qing, the behaviours of chaste women were highly honoured and promoted by the government and society, until the first meaningful womens movement in Chinese history- May Fourth Movement (Chen, 2001; Zhou, 2003). It brought up the new concept of womens chastity, which is under the condition of the true love, and the equality between the sexes (Li, 2006). Influenced by the Sex Revolution at the period in the Western World, intellectuals such as the famous scholars LuXun and HuShi, severely criticized the traditional view of chastity in 3 ways: morality, love, and governmental policies (Chen, 2001). Firstly, LuXun (1918) claimed that it is immoral to demand womens chastity. Fidelity and martyrdom are the malformed moralities that aim to oppress and befool women, he clarified, Women and Men are equalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦morality is meant for both men and women à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦men cannot require women for things they dont even do. Hushi (1918) also pointed out that it is immoral to ask women to obey the chastity while men were allowed to be involved with concubines and prostitutes. Secondly, chastity could not be considered as an existence without love. As HuShi pointed out, chastity was an attitude between husbands and wives; it is willingness rather than a compulsion. Thus, he indicated that for the women who do not love their husband, usually were the victims of arranged marriage, it is not their obligation to follow the fidelity and martyrdom for their un-chaste husbands. In addition, Hushi also questioned womens behaviour of committing suicide after being raped. He argued that they did not break their chastity and dignity because the rape is occurred by force not willingness. As a result, he suggested that the society should not look down on the raped women, and respect the brave performance of those people who married un-virgins or as un-virgins. Thirdly, it was brutal and inappropriate for government to promote chaste women. It is suggested that it is a widows interest to preserve chastity or remarry, others should not intervene (Chen, 2001). The May Forth indeed to a great extent enhanced the progress of womens chastity, however, due to the limitations of Chinese history and society, the New Chastity was merely accepted by several radical intellectuals. Although it seemed that there were minority of women got rid of the traditional chastity, the majority, and even to the entire society were still affected by the traditional chastity. During the era, the New Chastity was barely theoretical rather than particle (Chen, 2001; Li, 2006). Apart from the contributions from the open-minded scholars, globalisation, media, and mass-culture indirectly helped to bring womens chastity to a new level. For example, the widespread of the translated books which were originally written by foreigners such as the Japanese author Akiko Yosano ( 1878 ½Ã… ¾1942) and her work (Chen, 2001). After the May Forth Movement, more attentions were paid on womens liberation. Since the establishment of the Republic China, significant efforts were made by Chinese government in improving womens status. Through legislations, more legal rights in education, marriage, and property were offered for women (Zhou, 2003). The Communist Party of China (CPC) has brought womens status to a new level after their victory in 1949, especially under the Mao regime. Mao promoted the equal rights and personal dignity between sexes, and contributed to 3 important revolutionary changes for women: the Marriage Law of 1950s ensured the freedom of marriage and divorce; the Election Law of PRC of 1953 granted womens right to vote as well as men; and the equality of rights between men and women in terms of possessing or inherit property. It is believed that the by 1958, 16 million Chinese women were able to read, while before 1949, only 10% of women were literates. Furthermore, CPC encouraged women to participate in social production, which women gained more capitals in both economic and social aspects (ibid). It is also worth mentioning that prostitution and concubine have been out of law since the CPC came to power (ibid). Consequently, with the basic conditions, Chinese Womens awakening consciousness began to play as an important role in the post-Mao era (Li, 1994:299). In addition, Zhou (2003) stated that another pre-condition of womens liberation is the financial independence of women, in which they had no longer need to fully rely on their husbands. Peoples Republic of China (PRC) gradually shifted their concentration from the outer effects to the inner effects in the respect of womens liberation. According to Zhou (2003:69), the Fourth World Conference on womens right was hosted by China in 1995. It includes the rights to freedom of thought, conscience religion and belief, and participation on the basis of equality in all eliminate all forms of discrimination against women; promotes womens economic independence; and ensure womens equal access to economic resources, including science and technology, vocational training, information, communication, and markets. Zhou (1989) presents the dilemmatic situation for young women in the area of virginity and premarital sex in China in the late 1980s. Although the traditional views placed a high value on female virginity and deprecate premarital sex, young people now seem to have more opportunities to explore both love and sex, with the introduction of the new idea of romantic love accompanied by the growing social acceptance of close interactions between women and men. According to Zhous research in 1985, which has taken place in China, most of the young men had claimed their expectation of a virgin wife. Moreover, in rural China, nearly all the male and female peasants came to an agreement that in a love relationship, virginity was still considered to be the most valuable treasure for women. Nevertheless, the rate of premarital sexual intercourse was increasing rapidly in the present China in spite of still-existing traditional values. Several reasons can be considered for the further understandin g: social acceptance, education, and the support of young mens parents. It was agreed that most women have experienced the psychological pressures of a great dilemma in the selection between remaining a virgin and satisfying their boyfriends, but increasingly, women surrendered their resistance to the strategically emotional persuasion of their boyfriends (ibid). In terms of extramarital affairs which are popular nowadays in China, Thompson (1984) declared that either mere emotional or sexual involvement with someone other than ones spouse can be counted as extramarital affairs. According to Schwartz and Rutter (1998), all perspectives on gender differences in sexuality were divided into two dichotomized groups: traditional versus feminist. Traditional biosocial theories who reifying the biological distinctions between men and women, attempt to justify mens promiscuous behaviours: by maximizing the partners in order to inseminate the possible largest amount of women, men can somehow show their masculinity; whereas women would maximize their births for the purpose of holding onto the relationship. In opposition of the traditional perspectives, it is asserted by feminist perspectives that sexuality discrepancies between the genders are socially constructed. In this point of view, similar to men, women will tend to maximize their partners if the conditions allow them (ibid). 2.3 Contemporary China In Lis work (2006), she divides the present views of chastity in China into 3 categories: love-ism, utilitarianism, and hedonism. Firstly, love-ism chastity, which was first brought up during the May Forth Movement, means sex with the motivation of love. A research about the reasons of premarital sex, which organised by in 2004, mainly surveyed on the contemporary Chinese youth (age 20-30), in which most of them went to the universities. The result shows that for the women who had premarital sex experiences, 31.1% of them indicated that they did it in order to enhance the love in relationships, while 24.8% and 28.6% for the purposes of curiosity and want to keep their boyfriends respectively. Other 15.5% were claimed to have other reasons. From the research it is obvious that love-ism chastity is the mainstream concept of chastity nowadays in China (Zhou, 2006). Secondly, utilitarianism chastity is usually referred to the sex for benefits, such as the social phenomenon of prostitution and concubine (ibid). Thirdly, in regard of hedonism chastity, sex is often involved with either the physical or the psychological pleasure, or both. In the contemporary society, hedonism chastity is more likely the performance of simply physical pleasure (ibid). A recent study emphasizes that among the 40% of netizens who had experience on cyber love, nearly half of them did it on the purpose of one night stand (Xu, 2005). There are 4 main causes of the 3 categories of chastity. In the first place, the highly promotion of socialist market economy not only has vital contribution on the economy, but also in the area of politics, ideology, and morality. On one way, the commodity economy leads to the arousal of the sense of equality, which challenges the traditional idea of chastity, and women start to chase personal happiness. Therefore the love-ism chastity emerged. On another way, the commodity economy also arisen accompanied with hedonism and mammonism which directly link to the hedonism chastity and utilitarianism chastity (Zhou, 2006). Secondly, the rapid development of technologies, particularly the medical technology, popularizes the ways of contraception, and makes the abortion safer and more convenient. Hence, the concerns about illegitimate child were reduced, and eventually provide advantages for hedonistic sex. Women seemed to be the best beneficiary, which the pregnancy once was one of the most fears to have premarital sex. As a consequence, women can pay more attention on love rather than physical elements, which to some extent promote the formation of love-ism chastity (ibid). Culture aspect is probably one of the most essential factors. Although it seems that the traditional perspectives of chastity had lost its position in present society, however, in rural areas, villages in particular, it is still prevails. Moreover, the modern culture affects the modern youth in the way that they think it is their right and choice to choose their lifestyle such as cohabitation. Additionally, the Western culture such as the idea of sexual freedom and sexual liberation break the mysticism of sexuality, and attempt to achieve the sexual equality. Thus, the viewpoint of sex is changed. For the modern youth, love is not only spiritual and material, but also physical. Sex is certainly a part of love, and it aid to promote love. It is therefore nonsense to limit the sex. More importantly, it is believed by the youth that premarital sex is a positive behaviour in which it is a vital path to know a person and helping to make decisions on selecting the partner for life (ibid). Last but not least, social control gives the green light to the multiplex conceptions of chastity. For example, the Marriage Law forbids the married people cohabitate with others. Nevertheless, it is lack of the specific explanation on penalty and punishment. Laws can be such unfastened about extramarital cohabitation, do not even have to mention about premarital cohabitation and one night stand (ibid). Furthermore, in the present days, people care less about the things which not related to them, especially in the beneficial way. In this case, the shortening of social opinion looses the social psychological stress and reduces the restraint of peoples behaviour. In addition, the morality in China has change notably on the impact of the West (ibid). A relatively recent survey based on 2063 undergraduates in 18 universities in Shanghai, shows their attitudes on premarital cohabitation: 89.5% in total believe that it is understandable if the motivation is love, and it is inappropriate to over concern other peoples issues; while only 9.2% of them think that it is a moral degenerate (Xu and Wang, 2002). Methodology In order to facilitate the research and discover more information on this area, two methodologies were utilised for different purposes. Literature analysis is applied through literature reviews, aiming to find out the significance of the concept of Chinese womens chastity in Qing dynasty, since the era is too remote to be testified. In the meantime, questionnaires were set up in attempt to study the perception of womens virginity and fidelity in contemporary China. Additionally, both literature analysis and questionnaire are included in order to better understand the condition and situation of womens chastity the 20th century, mainly Republican China. The questionnaire is probably one of the most effective means to testify the hypothesis which was mentioned in the introduction, and to find out some other interesting information relevant to the topic but which is not anticipated in the early stages. Regarding to the sample of research, 140 surveys were required in total which divided by genders and generations. On one hand, 70 UNNC undergraduate students, 35 females and 35 males respectively, were selected randomly and selectively, which in the way it can represent as many opinions as possible, and reducing bias with maximum efforts (Strugis, 2008). As the attention of the questionnaire is focused on Modern China, and the university students can be considered as the representative groups of educated Chinese young people, therefore the candidates of the research are all selected among the Chinese students in UNNC. Moreover, the division of male and female represent the outside and inner factors. Apart from the self-conscious of wome n, mens attitude will affect womens understanding of chastity. Hence, it is crucial to include both of the two genders. On another hand, 70 copies of survey for parents, 35 females as well as 35 males, were sent along with the ones meant for students. It is interesting to compare and contrast the ideas on womens virginity and fidelity between the parents and their children, which they are respectively representative for the new generation that surrounded by the global environment, high-level education, widespread mass media, and developed technology; and the older generation who grew up in a period when China was relatively more closed to the outside world, and the progresses of technology and education are limited. Furthermore, the older generation may also be able to demonstrate the view of womens chastity of Republican China. Through the comparison of the two different generations can provide the possible causes that might lead to the different perspectives on womens virginity and fidelity. For the purpose of not making the candidates take too long when filling the questionnaire, the questionnaire is designed with two sections. There are 15 multiple choices and 3 open questions for UNNC girls, and 7 closed questions and 1 open question for UNNC boys. The mothers one is similar to their daughters while the fathers one is similar to their sons. Overall, parents ones contain two extra questions asking their age gap and education level, which seemed unnecessary for the UNNC students since their age gap and education level are confirmed: undergraduate. It is ensured that each survey takes no more than 15 minutes to finish it, without disturbing their study and work. According to Simmons (2008), pilot study is important with its function that it helps to refine the questionnaire. Thus, the initial samples were sent to several friends of mine before the actual distribution of the questionnaires, in order to examine the questionnaires critically with their objective points of view. As a result, some weaknesses of the original questionnaires were found. Such as the unclear instructions and questions, and some other possible option of answers that some candidates may want to choose are left out (ibid). Qualitative method was chosen in the first place, however, with the trial on few random UNNC students which I found on the High-Street, and one of the aunts who works in Canteen, I discovered their unwillingness of answering such sensitive questions, especially to a stranger. As an alternative, I chose questionnaire since it is less awkwardness to answer the questions. In the beginning, I sent the questionnaires to all UNNC undergraduates with the postscript of for Chinese Students only. Nevertheless, I found little response, and within the received questionnaires, most of them skip the sensitive questions such as are you a virgin. In order to maximise the response rate and the facticity, I managed to upload the questionnaires online, in which it is completely anonymous and make it more comfortable and more convenient for the candidates to do the surveys. Yet, there was a misgiving about the people other than UNNC undergraduates might answer the online questionnaires and eventually affect the result. As a consequence, I locked the questionnaires with password, and sent the four addresses of online questionnaires and the password to all UNNC undergraduates via email: UNNC girl, UNNC boy, their mother, and their father respectively. Also, in the email, I required the students not only to enter the relevant website, but also forward the online surveys to their parents. Additionally, the questionnaires for UNNC Undergraduates were written in English, while the ones for their parents were written in both Chinese and English. Findings and Discussions 4.1 Summary of Literature Analysis As what the literature analysis manifested, the demand of womens virginity before marriage and the fidelity after marriage was extremely strict in Qing. Due to the traditional ideology of Confucianism, women were merely one of mens properties in the patriarchal society. The popularized chastity cult played a vital role in Qing by honouring two female virtues: purity (jie), and martyrdom (lie). The former one referred to the sexual purity to one husband and the absolute lifetime fidelity to serve the in-laws; whereas, the latter one was more towards the absolute commitment to jie, which required more self-sacrifice and often end up with death. Numerous women were recorded chastity suicide during Qing. Several major causes of womens chastity will be analysed in the following paragraphs. First of all, womens chastity was significant in terms of human dignity. Majority of them felt failed of being a person after being offended even through slight harassments such as flirtation. Moreover, governmental policies highly promoted the chaste women, and severely punish the considered un-chaste women such as the women accused of adultery. In addition, social pressure and education had a great contribution as well. Finally, widows could obtain particular advantages. Social respects and family honour, for instance. Nonetheless, it is argued that the chaste suicides in Qing might have been over-emphasized. On one hand, there were a large number of women who carried on adulterous affairs without concerning their reputation. On the other hand, most rape victims did not search the path of death during the Qing era. For the women who were willing to become chaste widows after the death of their husband, monetary issues often stopped them from doing so. In order to collect enough money to liquidate the debts of the dead husband, or to finance his interment, a certain number of women accepted the remarriage. In other words, they traded themselves with the bride-price to their new husbands. Additionally, the widows with property which left by their deceased husband might be forced to take the arranged remarriage by the envy in-laws who wanted to take over the property. In the late Qing, a group of open-minded intellectuals who were influenced by the Western culture, had brought up the idea of gender equity, and defied the traditional chastity. Yet, their focuses were mainly on the campaigns of womens education and the freedom of marriage. 4.2 Questionnaire Summary The total valid responses were 79, including 33 female undergraduates, 22 male undergraduates, 13 mothers, and 11 fathers. It is a satisfactory rate of response, which reached 56%. More than half of the

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Use of Elemental Imagery in Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre Essay

Use of Elemental Imagery in Jane Eyre    The use of elemental imagery in Jane Eyre, sustained throughout the novel both metaphorically and literally, is one of Charlotte Brontà «'s major stylistic devices. The natural opposition of the two elements of water and fire ("the war of the earthly elements", as Jane puts it) highlights the need for the titular heroine to find equilibrium between points identified as extremes. However, as David Lodge notes, "we should be mistaken in looking for a rigidly schematic system of elemental imagery and reference in Jane Eyre". Fire and water images in the novel have their shifting associations, which reflect on the characters of Jane, Rochester and St John Rivers. The broad suitability of the images shows that they can be both destructive forces and agents of renewal. Using them as both allows Brontà « to show how far the characters have learnt to reconcile the Romantic desire for passion with the need for restraint, for it is only in that way that true personal selfhood can be rea lised. And this search for a personal selfhood, where one is judged on one's own character, not society's usual manner of judgment based on title, money or beauty, can be said to be the focus in the novel. It is instructive to note that fire, used metaphorically, is almost solely used to describe Jane and Rochester. Fire is associated with passion, and it is imperative for the characters to learn that while passion is a valuable quality, without which any relationship would be a cold and dead one, it is not the only component of a relationship; other qualities like mutual respect and honesty must be present. "Fire is a good servant, but a bad master", as the old saying goes. The fire within both parties creates t... ... Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1991 David Lodge, Fire and Eyre: Charlotte Brontà «'s War of Earthly Elements Gates, Barbara Timm, ed. Critical Essays on Charlotte Bronte. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990.    Jane Eyre. Dir. Franco Zeffirelli. Perf. William Hurt, Charlotte Gainsborough, and Anna Paquin. 1996    Kadish, Doris. The Literature of Images: Narrative Landscape from Julie to Jane Eyre. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1986.    Lodge, Scott. "Fire and Eyre: Charlotte Bronte's War of Earthly Elements." The Brontes: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Ian Gregor. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970. 110-36.    McLaughlin, M.B. "Past or Future Mindscapes: Pictures in Jane Eyre." Victorian Newsletter 41 (1972): 22-24.    Solomon, Eric. "Jane Eyre: Fire and Water." College English 25 (1964): 215-217.   

Friday, October 11, 2019

A Report on the Link Between Management Principles, Functions and Organisation Structure

A REPORT ON THE LINK BETWEEN MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES, FUNCTIONS AND ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ESHUL RAYHAN ID 103718-86 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO. SUMMARY†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 INTRODUCTION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 FUNCTION OF PLANNING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 5 FUNCTION OF ORGANISING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTUREâ₠¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 FUNCTION OF LEADING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ANDORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8 FUNCTION OF CONTROLLING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9 CONCLUSION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 REFERENCE LIST†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦11 SUMMARY The report shows the connection between the four functions of management, Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling with the Management Principles and Organizational Structures are designed to imply the factors for the successful operation of a business organization like Marks and Spencer.Examples has been drawn to support the ideas and put light on the scenarios in the organization. INTRODUCTION The motto of the following report is to identify and highlight the connection between the management principles, functions and organizational structure. Every organization has the application of these three factors as better outcomes are achieved when they are linked together and implied. The management principles affect the management functions which have a great influence on the organizational str ucture.This report is using ‘MARKS AND SPENCER’ as an example to show how the three affect on each other. Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively through other people. It includes various processes and steps which will be further discussed in the following report. There are 14 management principles as stated by Henry Fayol ( Boddy, 2005 ). Many of them are linked with the functions of management which are, Planning, Organizing, Controlling and Leading.The report is to show the relations between the three factors of the business and how are they implied. FUNCTION OF PLANNING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Planning is an essential component of management function to carry out the smooth operation of a business. It contains the property of identifying the obejectives of a business by the management team. When the plans are being made, the changes are implied immediately or according to a time sp an as required according to the current status of the business.For a successful planning, forecasting is very necessary for the management as it helps them to be prepared for the worst case scenarios and to earn more revenues as well. This very function management can be linked with one of the management principles as stated by a French business analyst named Henry Fayol, which is Unity of Direction. The author defines the principle as the combination of group of people who work together to achieve the same organizational goals and performs the activities in a definite synchronized system to achieve them with maximum efficiency.For example, if we look into a press release by Marks and Spencer during their AGM in 11th July 2011, it is seen that the Chairman and CEO of the company, Mr. Luc Vandevelde announced that the company is going to bring a significant change in their planning and thus a change in their organizational structure as well. He also announced the new planning strateg ies which will be carried out to maximize profits for the company. The plans were implied from 29th March 2001. It included the selling of their own brands only but not any other external brands anymore.This is done to reattain the fame regarding the quality of own products as customers experienced no extra facilities buying external brands from Marks and Spencer and neither the external brand companies nor Marks and Spencer could gain any outstanding revenue selling exrternal brand products. To make this come into action, the company decided to return to their own suppliers who had been supplying the very own products dedicated for the selling purpose of Marks and Spencer only. This would result to the attainment of the former business relations and strong future commitments and the uphill formation of M & S business achievements.The second plan was to close down the subsidiary companies which were making losses rather than profits M & S. For example, Brooks Brothers and Kings Supe r Market in USA were sold off as they were loss-making companies and were affecting the gross profit margin of M & S. The company also decided to close down the stores in Central Europe as it was not making profits. These plans were made and implied after research being made by the superiors of the company and the structures had been re-organized.This is where the organizational structure comes into action when the company sort out and design the strategies to overcome the difficulties and perform smooth business actions. FUNCTION OF ORGANISING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Organizing is the process of combining human, physical and financial resources to achieve organizational goals. It is important to carefully dedicate the resources to maximize profits since resources are always limited. This is synchronized with the ‘Division of Labor’ management principle by Henry Fayol.This factor of management principle is described by the author t hat the every duty of an organization is spread evenly among the employees to ease out the process of output. If we draw an example regarding M & S, its seen that the duties are segregated between the employees. The organization is structured from the Chairman to Customer Service Assistant, where, they have different tasks to complete. This results to finish and achieve goals within less time and with more efficiency as there is a saying that,’ A load of ten is a burden of one’.Each of the employee are asked to perform their own definite task which then becomes a positive outcome when made total. FUNCTION OF LEADING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Management needs to exercise the function of leading in order for the organization to achieve their goals. It is an essential part of the management as it helps the management to direct employees to focus on ‘the big picture’. Normally management focuses on increasing productivity to improve cost efficiency. To improve productivity employees need direction and motivation.The direction and motivation are usually received from superiors. This can be linked with the management principle of ‘Authority and Responsibility’ which means to have the power to order the sub-ordinates and direct them to achieving goals. For example, M & S have the supervisors who lead the Retail Operatives to fulfill the targets which are set by the Managers to the supervisors. It follows a chain of command which has the ultimate goal of maximizing profit. The chain of command starts from the highest level of authority like the Chairman and ends to the Retail Operatives’ tasks.FUNCTION OF CONTROLLING LINKING WITH MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Management must use the function of Control to maximize employee performance and stabilize the working environment. There had been always a controversy where it is widely believed that Controlling is a negati ve term because the employees regard it to be a restriction. But at the very conclusion, it helps to maintain a strict guideline which the employees must follow to avoid chaos. â€Å"Managers expect people in an organization to change their behavior in response to control† (Erven, 1994).This can be inter related with management principle of â€Å"Discipline†, which is clearly stated by Fayol that there should be certain rules which are to be followed must by the employees. When it is looked into M & S, it is apparent that the company applies a number of rules which must be obliged by the employees to create a better working environment and prevent any internal hassles within the company. Therefore, the organization has been structured in such format where certain rules are set in purpose to keep the working environment healthy and prosperous in respect to business aspects. CONCLUSIONFrom the report it is apparent that Management Functions are greatly influenced by the Management Principles based on which the organization is being structured. The achievement of organizational goals are highly affected due to the implication of these three management factors. It is fair to conclude that, for an organization to make profit and carry out its operation in long run, the application of these management factors are inevitable. REFERENCE LIST 1. Boddy, D (2005), Management Concepts and Principles, Prentice Hall 2. [Online] http://corporate. marksandspencer. com/aboutus/ourhistory, Accessed at 12/04/2011

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Background Study of the Effect of Study Habit

Background Study of the Effect of Study Habit on the Academic Performances of 3rd Year H. S Students S. Y 2012 – 2013 Study habit is a technique or a strategy used every time a person is studying. Some students would have the same study habit or may have a different one. It depends on whether a specific study habit is effective for them. The stress on good study habits will undoubtedly improved the students’ level of performance. Study habits are important on the part of the students so that it can make use of their time effectively and purposely instead of wasting their time with insufficient study accomplishments.It is a common knowledge that many students fail in studying; even those who work hard often study in ways considered unproductive. Several others are just contented with barely passing grades, never developing their skills and abilities to the highest level attainable. What to study, where to study and how to study are indispensable to every student in class . In fact, proper study habits are the tool for acquiring deeper understanding in different subjects.Good study habits largely influence the level of performance of the student on the subject. In view of this, the researcher proposes to conduct their study on the study habits of students to help the teachers raise the level of performance of their students through the development of proper study habits. The growing number of low performers on the subject point to the need for the redirection and development of students study attitudes and practices in the teaching learning process. The research work is an attempt to address to this need.

Ethical Decision making by School Principals Essay

Principals are faced with the challenge of managing schools and there is need for them to be ethical, respectful, inspiring, creative and knowledgeable about methods of instruction and the culture of the school and curriculum. These principals are also faced with the challenge of knowing and identifying areas of support that is able to enhance the school’s mission and also manage the areas that impede the achievement of a stated mission of the school. Since the needs of students are ever changing, they should also be in a position to make both smaller and larger adjustments that could be beneficial to the school and easily manageable by the organization in the management of these decisions. (Sousa, 2003, pp. 195-198). A decision is termed as ethical when it is able to bring about positive results and does not harm other people or the third party. These decisions are able to bring forth respect, trust, fairness and caring, responsibility and demonstrate good citizenship. When a decision accomplishes the needs of people together with their purposes, it is then termed as an effective decision. Ethically sound decisions are mostly advanced by two critical aspects namely discernment and discipline. For a decision to poses the aspect of discernment, it requires judgment and knowledge. The strength of character on the other hand, makes up a good decision and this takes moral change and the will power to be able to do what needs to be done (Hoy & Tarter 2004, pp. 56-60). Ethical decision making calls for good leadership from principals. Leadership may be described as the authority or ability of an individual or individuals to lead others towards the achievement of a goal. It involves directing and influencing others towards the accomplishment of the stated common objectives and involves responsibility and accountability for the group. There are various leadership styles that are used today in many organizations and institutions. The autocratic type of leaders apply unilateralist while dominating their team-members in order to achieve a particular objective. However, this method often results to resistance from the team- members, as this style generally requires constant pressure and a lot of direction to get things done. On the other hand, this style could be more effective in urgent situations requiring urgent action (Schiminke, 1998, pp. 107-110). In the Laissez-Faire leadership, little control is exercised by managers over their groups. This allows the team-members to sort out their duties and obligations but the manager is not in any way involved with them. This style of leadership however is ineffective at certain circumstances since the team is left floundering with limited motivation and direction. Laissez- faire is effective in cases whereby a manager leads a team that is highly skilled and motivated and these people have in the past produced excellent work. The Democratic leader on other hand often uses participation and the groups’ teamwork towards attaining a collaborative decision. This style focuses on communication between the leader and the team and hence a positive climate for achieving results is created. The leaders consult their teams before making a decision while still in control of the team. These leaders allow the team to make decisions on how certain duties will be carried out and by whom (Schiminke, 1998, pp. 107-110). In addition, a good democratic leader is one who approves participation by team members and delegation of duties or tasks is done wisely. This kind of a leader values the points put forward from them and also encourages any group discussion. He also empowers the team through motivation. On leadership styles include a coercive leader, authoritative. Leader, affiliative leader, pace setting and a coaching leader. A coercive leader demands obedience, which should be instantaneous and applies initiative, achievement and self-control. In times of crisis or company turn around, this style is considered to be more effective but it mostly creates a negative climate for the performance in an organization. The authoritative leader on the other hand is considered to be one of the most effective as this leader inspires employees to follow a vision, facilitate change and creates a strong organizational climate that results in positive performance. The affiliative leadership values people, their emotions and their needs and relies on friendship and trust to promote flexibility, innovation and risk taking. A pacesetting leader can create a negative climate because of the high standards he or she sets. This style works best in attaining quick results from highly motivated individuals who value achievement and take the initiative. Lastly, the coaching leader builds a positive climate by developing skills that will foster long-term success. This type of leader also delegates responsibly, and is skillful in issuing assignments that are quite challenging. Leadership entails organizing people in a bid to achieve the stated goals of the group. It is therefore essential that leaders should posses certain basic qualities that will enable them to be effective leaders in whatever situation or task they undertake (Guy, 1990 pp. 105-107). Leaders should display a good work ethic that will enable other employees to emulate. A good work ethic includes: being on time, being organized giving praise to employees, being well prepared for meetings and having good communication within the venture that will go a long way towards achieving emotional and financial success. Therefore a leader should set an example with an ethical set of values for other managers and employees. For a leader to be effective, he/she should be willing to constantly learn at the same time integrate the knowledge they have acquired through learning into their leadership style. They must also develop skills that will promote them into being good leaders. Another quality of a good leader is that they should constantly keep up with the current trends in leadership and be aware that the leadership styles are constantly changing. In other words these leaders should be open to change. A good leader should also be able to mobilize people and acquire their trust in the process. Good leaders should also have the ability to communicate effectively with their subordinates communication is an essential aspect since it involves both listening and sending messages or telling others what needs to be done. Moral leaders are in a position to produce good moral leadership. They mostly apply restraint and power in their leadership. They are willing to accept any results without imposing control on other people. This is stewardship. It enables leaders to accept their faults which are human instead of shielding themselves under their authority and status. Ethics can be described as the codes of conduct that guide on how one should behave regarding moral duties and virtues. These moral principles guide a person in determining what is wrong or right. Morality by principals can be termed as personal ethics. This is because personal ethics reflect the expectations of people of all works in the society. Ethics has got two aspects: the ability to determine right from wrong, propriety from impropriety and good from evil. The second perspective concerns the commitment to perform an action that is proper, right and good. The principles of personal ethics include: trustworthiness and honesty, concern for the well being of others preventing harm refusing to take unfair advantage, respect for the autonomy of others and basic justice. Ethics as displayed by principals in schools or any other leaders could be classified as under written and unwritten codes of ethics: codes of ethics are the efforts which are systematic in nature and are used in defining the right conduct. They also provide guidance and help in the installation of confidence in various aspects of life from the government and all organizations. The main guidance is reflected in the decision making process especially where values seem to conflict. Written codes of ethics can be made known by an organization, professional or jurisdiction. On the other hand unwritten codes that exist and that help us in our lives are more effective than the written ones. Un written codes of ethics include rules such as honesty, security, loyalty among others. These unwritten codes of ethics mostly arise from family and cultural tradition and can also be found in workplace. These written and unwritten codes of ethics mostly arise from family and cultural tradition and can also be found in workplace. These written and unwritten codes of ethics are found in the society and they help one in establishing their personal belief system. Ethical behaviors should be a part and parcel of an individual’s daily routine (Murphy & McMurty, 2000. pp. 110-115). I believe that Principals need to make strategic decisions since society and environment are dynamic and this provides them with a means that is strategic in nature that could enable them consider the external environment by focusing on the strength of the school organization, reducing weaknesses in school and also identify all the available opportunities that could put the school at a better position to be able to gain a competitive advantage. School principals are able to make an ethically defensible decision when the decision is well thought considering all the formal possible angels meaning that everybody takes part in decision making. In addition, ethically sound decisions in corporate all the possible solutions regarding the positive and negative outcomes of the decision. The decisions made by school principles need to involve a consultative process, team or group process or delegated duties to the staff members. This will help principals to come up with an ethically sound decision that will have a positive impact to all the members of the society which includes the students. Today, school leaders are the people who are accountable ethically, legally and morally for any decisions that they make in schools. Dempster and Parry (1999) note that the schools pressure mainly arise from four sources that is pressure of involving non-educationalists in the decision making in schools; changes in the growth of knowledge and applying the new advanced technology in learning processes; increased social problems such as suicide, violence and unemployment. This means that school leaders are constantly faced with ethical dilemmas while making decisions in schools hence resulting in conflicting ethical principles. Therefore how ethics/morals impact on decision-making is profound as this could easily change the way society operates. Foster (1986) also notes that it is the actions by the officials of the school that will strongly determine personal codes of ethics and values (Shapiro, 2000, pp. 120-125). On the ethical decision making by principals in schools, Denig and Quinn (2001) proposed a philosophical model with two moral principles namely; care and justice. They argue that most of the decisions that are made by school leaders, are mainly based on formalism which is policy and law and this is aimed at bringing about the greatest good to all (utilitarianism). In other words, this approach clearly views decision making as a rational approach that involves the use of universal principles. The decision maker performs what is right that could result in good deeds to all rather than individualism hence equity becomes the desirable outcome. They also point out that it is only through making decisions by collaborative means that these leaders can be able to analyze the dilemmas and get prepared to encompass the principle of working together with the school system and this eventually results in making decisions that are ethical (Sousa, 2003, pp. 195-198). Greenfield (19991) on the other hand argues that school leaders experience distinct sets of demands concerning ethics. He notes that schools being moral institutions are designed to bring for the social norms and other principles. They should be able to make decisions that are morally acceptable. He further notes that although schools are charged with the responsibility of creating moral values and making moral decisions by dedicating themselves to promote the well-being of their students, it is surprising that the same students have virtually no right to express themselves to what goes on in their schools and it is for these reasons that the conduct of these school leaders need to be moral (Kowalski, 2001, pp. 5-98). Robert Starratt (1991) also talks of equality in social arrangement benefits by arguing that today’s social arrangement results to unequal benefits among people. He argues that school principles should not only behave ethically but also be responsible individuals. Lastly, Green field argues that the authority of the principal is moral and teachers should be convinced that the decisions make by the principal reflects all the values that they support (Nutt, 2002, pp. 50-54). Kidder (1995) defines an ethical dilemma as the responsibilities that people face in making choices between two rights cherished values that conflict are the principle cause of dilemmas. For instance a principal is bound to be faced with a dilemma if at all he/she cherishes both the teacher and student and the teacher decides to enact a policy that will result in low expectations. Some philosophers and thinkers have come up with a number of guidelines that could help to solve these dilemmas faced by school leaders. They argue that leaders should be able and willing to act along the set standards of ethics. They could also address and also should be caring and conscious reflection whenever they lead other people (Nutt, 2002, pp. 50-54). School leaders could also form ethics committees to help them solve ethical dilemmas as these committees could prove helpful in raising the awareness concerning ethical issues, advising educators and also in the formulation of codes of ethics. A quality decision that is made by a school principal will depend on a number of factors made, extent to which others are able to generate a quality solution, how the problem is structured and the degree of commitment. Moreover, decisions made in schools require a lot of staff decision and support. School principals also need to understand the culture of their schools while attempting to make any decisions as this will establish whether the decision made is appropriate for the school. Therefore, these head teachers need to analyze and comprehend any relevant and comprehend any relevant information presented to them together with data. They also need to gather and measure evidence, issue judgments and finally make the necessary decisions. Creativity is essential as these will help in solving any anticipating problems hence development of opportunities for the school. Finally, school principals should be in a position to demonstrate quality judgment. This will enable them to know how and when they need to make any decisions among others. Decisions made by school principals could be autocratic, consultative, Group or Delegated decisions. An autocratic decision is that which the school principal makes it himself / herself by use of the available information or gathered from other groups or people. This therefore requires these school leaders to make appropriate and quick decisions when expected to do them at a particular point in time consultation on the other hand means that a problem has to be shared amongst individuals in order to obtain collective views or ideas but the school principal has to make the final decision afterwards.