Friday, December 27, 2019

Definition of the Disengagement Theory of Aging

Disengagement theory outlines a process of disengagement from social life that people experience as they age and become elderly. The theory states that, over time, elderly people withdraw, or disengage from, the social roles and relationships that were central to their life in adulthood. As a functionalist theory, this framework casts the process of disengagement as necessary and beneficial to society, as it allows the social system to remain stable and ordered. Overview of Disengagement in Sociology Disengagement theory was created by social scientists  Elaine Cumming and William Earle Henry, and presented in the book  Growing Old, published in 1961. It is notable for being the first social science theory of aging, and in part, because it was controversially received, sparked further development of social science research, and theories about the elderly, their social relationships, and their roles in society. This theory presents a social systemic discussion of the aging process and the evolution of the social lives of elderly  and was inspired by functionalist theory. In fact, famed sociologist Talcott Parsons, who is regarded as a leading functionalist, wrote the foreword to the Cummings and Henrys book. With the theory, Cummings and Henry situate aging within the social system and offer a set of steps that outline how the process of disengagement occurs as one ages  and why this is important and beneficial to the social system as a whole. They based their theory on  data from the Kansas City Study of Adult Life, a  longitudinal study that tracked several hundred adults from middle to old age,  conducted by researchers at the University of Chicago. Postulates of the Theory of Disengagement Based on this data Cummings and Henry created the following nine postulates that comprise the theory of disengagement. People lose social ties to those around them because they expect death, and their abilities to engage with others deteriorate over time.As a person begins to disengage, they are increasingly freed from social norms which guide interaction. Losing touch with norms reinforces and fuels the process of disengagement.The disengagement process for men and women differs due to their different social roles.The process of disengaging is spurred by an individuals desire to not have their reputation damaged by losing skills and abilities while they are still fully engaged in their social roles. Simultaneously younger adults are trained to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to take over the roles played by those who disengage.Complete disengagement happens when both the individual and society are ready for this to occur. A disjunction between the two will occur when one is ready but not the other.People who have disengaged adopt new social roles so as not to suffer a crisis of identity o r become demoralized.A person is ready to disengage when they are aware of the short time remaining in their life and they no longer wish to fulfill their current social roles; and society allows for disengagement in order to provide jobs for those coming of age, to satisfy the social needs of a nuclear family, and because people die.Once disengaged, remaining relationships shift, rewards of them may change, and hierarchies may also shift.Disengagement occurs across all cultures but is shaped by the culture in which it occurs. Based on these postulates, Cummings and Henry suggested that the elderly are happiest when they accept and willingly go along with the process of disengagement. Critiques of the Theory of Disengagement The theory of disengagement caused controversy as soon as it was published. Some critics pointed out that this was a flawed social science theory because Cummings and Henry assume that the process is natural, innate, and inevitable, as well as universal. Evoking a fundamental conflict within sociology between functionalist and other theoretical perspectives, some pointed out that the theory completely  ignores the role of class in shaping the experience of aging, while others critiqued the assumption that the elderly have seemingly no agency in this process, but rather are compliant tools of the social system. Further, based on subsequent research, others asserted that the  theory of disengagement fails to capture the complex and rich social lives of the elderly, and the many forms of engagement that follow retirement (see The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile by Cornwall et al., published in  American Sociological Review  in 2008). Noted contemporary sociologist Arlie Hochschild also published critiques of this theory. From her view, the theory is flawed because it has  an escape clause, wherein those who do not disengage are considered troubled outliers. She also critiqued Cummings and Henry for failing to provide evidence that disengagement is willingly done. While Cummings stuck to her theoretical position, Henry subsequently disavowed it in later publications and aligned himself with alternative theories that followed, including  activity theory and continuity theory. Recommended Reading Growing Old, by Cumming and Henry, 1961.Lives Through the Years: Styles of Life and Successful Aging, by Wiliams and Wirths, 1965.Disengagement Theory: A Critical Evaluation, by George L. Maddox, Jr.,  The Gerontologist,  1964.Disengagement Theory: A Critique and Proposal, by Arlie Hochschild,  American Sociological Review  40, no. 5 (1975): 553–569.Disengagement Theory: A Logical, Empirical, and Phenomenological Critique, by Arlie Hochshchild, in  Time, Roles, and Self in Old Age, 1976.Revisiting the Kansas City study of adult life: roots of the disengagement model in social gerontology, by J. Hendricks,  Getontologist, 1994. ​​Updated  by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Literary Critique of All Quiet on the Western Front Essay

Literary Critique of All Quiet on the Western Front In the book All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque illustrates the picture of World War I to the reader. This book is the story of Paul Baumer, who with his classmates recruits in the German Army of World War I. This anti-war novel is an excellent book because through the experiences of Paul Baumer, I am able to actually feel like Im in the war. It is a very useful piece of literature, which increases the readers knowledge on how the war affected the people at the time setting. By reading this book, one is drawn into the actual events of the war, and can feel the abyss of death. I believe this piece is very well written. It is entirely simple, lacking any bias†¦show more content†¦Many of Pauls fellow army men do not survive. After the loss of Pauls closest friends, returning to the front was hard for him. The days were getting cold and one by one he watched his friends die. The hardest loss was that of Kat. After Kat had been shot, Paul had to carry Kat to the nearest first-aid station a few miles away. Kat was the last of Pauls friends to die in the war. Then, in October of 1918, Paul is killed on a quiet day shortly before the armistice ends the war. As mentioned previously, the story is told from Pauls point of view. This view of his is parallel to that of Remarques. Remarques characterization of paul and the other soldiers is intended to convey information and instruction to the reader. For example the way these characters are described instructs the reader in the needless suffering and loss brought on by war. The author makes a point about military leaders through one of the characters. Kropp notes about rise in rank, As sure as they get a stripe or a star they become different men, just as though theyd swallowed concrete (43). Kat mentions that military life brings out the worst in men, particularly the abuse of power over lesser men. This is a significant part that the author adds into the book because it illustrates a metaphor of the greater powers wanting to attack the weaker countries to gain more power; imperialism, which is one of the main causes of the war. In chapter 4, one of the most dramatic in the book,Show MoreR elatedThe Boys Attitude to War in All Quiet on the Western Front Essay3195 Words   |  13 PagesCompare ‘Gallipoli and ‘All Quiet on the Western Front in terms of the:  · Boys attitude to war  · Reasons for enlistment  · Experiences on the front How do these change their attitude to war? What does this tell you about the similarities and differences the Australians and Germans experiences? Analysis of Major Characters Paul Bà ¤umer As the novels narrator and protagonist, Paul is the central figure in All Quiet on the Western Front and serves as the mouthpiece for Remarques meditationsRead More Biography of Ernest Hemingway Essay3737 Words   |  15 Pagesof seventeen. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Management Theory and Practice Modern Management

Question: Describe about the Management Theory and Practice for Modern Management. Answer: 1: Henry Fayol is considered as father of modern management. He laid down the foundation on developing management as a distinct and specialized body of knowledge. He recommended that there were five principal purposes of management and fourteen principles. Below mentioned are the six principal objectives of a management: Planning: This function of management aims to chalk out future course of actions and determining the most suitable course of action to achieve the desired goals. Organizing: This function aims to bring together various available resources together and develop a correlation among them to achieve the goal. Staffing: The main purpose of function is to serve the requirement of choosing the right person for the right job. It includes manpower planning, training and development, performance appraisal etc. Directing: This function aims at influencing, supervising, guiding and motivating the employees to achieve organizational goals. Controlling: The function aims to check whether everything is falling in its in the process of achieving organizational goal (OConnor 2015). Fayol also gave fourteen principles that are applied in todays business which are division labor to increase productivity, authority and responsibility to create feeling of belongingness, obey disciplines that govern the organization, unity of command emphasized on the fact that each employee should receive orders from one superior, unity of direction explained that all employees should focus on same objective, subordination, remuneration emphasized on fair remuneration to each employee, centralization of decision making, scalar chain, order, equity, permanence of term of employees, initiatives and Espirit the corps which aims at promoting team spirit and build harmony and unity within the organization (Peaucelle and Guthrie 2015). 4: Peter. F. Drucker is considered as the leader among various other contemporary management thinkers. He had knowledge in various areas as law, psychology, journalism, sociology. Throughout his life, Drucker devised solutions to various managerial problems. His assistance covered various aspects of management. Following are the major contributions made by Drucker management functions, nature of management, organization structure, management by objectives, federalism, and organizational changes. Management by objectives (MBO) is considered as one of the most vital contributions made by Drucker. The term management by objectives (MBO) was coined by Drucker in 1954. It refers to the practice of setting goals for the workforce to ensure employees should know what they are supposed to do at the workplace. In the words of Drucker, its rather a philosophy than a management technique (Drucker 2013). Following are the needs of Management by Objectives (MBO): It helps the employees to understand their duties at workplace. Key result areas (KRAs) are defined for the employees based on their educational qualifications and experience. It leads employees towards satisfaction. It shuns the probability of job mismatch followed by unwanted confusions. Limitations of Management by Objectives (MBO): It does not emphasize on the facts such as existing working conditions and work culture in the organization. It mainly emphasizes on the goals and objectives of the organization. It merely expects its employees to achieve the pre-determined target of the organizations without considering the facts such workplace conditions. This process sometimes treats human being as mere machines (Turriago Thoene and Arjoon 2016). References Drucker, P., 2013.People and performance. Routledge. OConnor, E.S., 2015, October. Henri Fayol and the managerial point of view. InAnnales des Mines-Grer et comprendre(No. 3, pp. 93-95). FFE. Peaucelle, J.L. and Guthrie, C., 2015. Henri Fayol. Turriago-Hoyos, A., Thoene, U. and Arjoon, S., 2016. Knowledge Workers and Virtues in Peter Druckers Management Theory.SAGE Open,6(1), p.2158244016639631.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Proteus Vulgaris free essay sample

Proteus vulgaris is a gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, bacillus rodchemoheterotroph bacterium belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It possesses peritrichous flagella, making it actively motile. P. vulgaris occurs naturally the intestional tracts of humans and animals, soil, fecal matter, polluted water, and raw meat. It is grouped with the enterobacteriacea and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. In humans P. vulgaris is known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections. P. ulgaris is associated with nosocomial infection, and has the ability to degrade urea to ammonia by production of the enzyme urease. McConkey agar contains lactose, which P. vulgaris does not ferment. It ferments glucose, sucrose, galactose, glycerol occasionally maltose with gas production, but never lactose. P. vulgaris ferments liquefies gelatin, casein, and blood serum, curdling milk with acid production. P. vulgaris provides a positive result for: sulfur reduction,urease production, tryptophan deaminase production, and indole production. It’s not limited to any specific temperature range, but good growth occurs at 20 to 30 degrees Celsius, while growth is poor at 37 degrees Celsius. We will write a custom essay sample on Proteus Vulgaris or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page P. vulgaris has two interesting features. The cells are highly motile and swarm across the surface of the agar plates, forming a very thin film of bacteria. When the cells stop and undergo a cycle of growth and division, the swarming periods are interspersed wth periods and the colony has a distinct zonation. The other feature is that. P. vulgaris can produce urease and degrade urea to ammonia. By alkalining the urine, P. vulgaris makes the environment more suitable for its survival. P. vulgaris is more prone to cause nosocomial infections. To prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens within hospitals, the persistence of nosocomial pathogens on surfaces was assessed. The longer a nosocomial pathogens remains on a surface, the longer it may be a source of transmission and thus there is higher chance of getting exposed to a susceptible patient or hospital personnel. The result showed that P. vulgaris survived 1-2 days. To reduce the risk of transmission of nosocomial pathogens from inanimate surfaces to susceptible patients, disinfection of surfaces in specific patient-care areas is recommended.