Friday, December 27, 2019
Disengagement theory outlines a process of disengagement from social life that people experience as they age and become elderly. The theory states that, over time, elderly people withdraw, or disengage from, the social roles and relationships that were central to their life in adulthood. As a functionalist theory, this framework casts the process of disengagement as necessary and beneficial to society, as it allows the social system to remain stable and ordered. Overview of Disengagement in Sociology Disengagement theory was created by social scientistsÃ Elaine Cumming and William Earle Henry, and presented in the bookÃ Growing Old, published in 1961. It is notable for being the first social science theory of aging, and in part, because it was controversially received, sparked further development of social science research, and theories about the elderly, their social relationships, and their roles in society. This theory presents a social systemic discussion of the aging process and the evolution of the social lives of elderlyÃ and was inspired by functionalist theory. In fact, famed sociologist Talcott Parsons, who is regarded as a leading functionalist, wrote the foreword to the Cummings and Henrys book. With the theory, Cummings and Henry situate aging within the social system and offer a set of steps that outline how the process of disengagement occurs as one agesÃ and why this is important and beneficial to the social system as a whole. They based their theory onÃ data from the Kansas City Study of Adult Life, aÃ longitudinal study that tracked several hundred adults from middle to old age,Ã conducted by researchers at the University of Chicago. Postulates of the Theory of Disengagement Based on this data Cummings and Henry created the following nine postulates that comprise the theory of disengagement. People lose social ties to those around them because they expect death, and their abilities to engage with others deteriorate over time.As a person begins to disengage, they are increasingly freed from social norms which guide interaction. Losing touch with norms reinforces and fuels the process of disengagement.The disengagement process for men and women differs due to their different social roles.The process of disengaging is spurred by an individuals desire to not have their reputation damaged by losing skills and abilities while they are still fully engaged in their social roles. Simultaneously younger adults are trained to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to take over the roles played by those who disengage.Complete disengagement happens when both the individual and society are ready for this to occur. A disjunction between the two will occur when one is ready but not the other.People who have disengaged adopt new social roles so as not to suffer a crisis of identity o r become demoralized.A person is ready to disengage when they are aware of the short time remaining in their life and they no longer wish to fulfill their current social roles; and society allows for disengagement in order to provide jobs for those coming of age, to satisfy the social needs of a nuclear family, and because people die.Once disengaged, remaining relationships shift, rewards of them may change, and hierarchies may also shift.Disengagement occurs across all cultures but is shaped by the culture in which it occurs. Based on these postulates, Cummings and Henry suggested that the elderly are happiest when they accept and willingly go along with the process of disengagement. Critiques of the Theory of Disengagement The theory of disengagement caused controversy as soon as it was published. Some critics pointed out that this was a flawed social science theory because Cummings and Henry assume that the process is natural, innate, and inevitable, as well as universal. Evoking a fundamental conflict within sociology between functionalist and other theoretical perspectives, some pointed out that the theory completelyÃ ignores the role of class in shaping the experience of aging, while others critiqued the assumption that the elderly have seemingly no agency in this process, but rather are compliant tools of the social system. Further, based on subsequent research, others asserted that theÃ theory of disengagement fails to capture the complex and rich social lives of the elderly, and the many forms of engagement that follow retirement (see The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile by Cornwall et al., published inÃ American Sociological ReviewÃ in 2008). Noted contemporary sociologist Arlie Hochschild also published critiques of this theory. From her view, the theory is flawed because it hasÃ an escape clause, wherein those who do not disengage are considered troubled outliers. She also critiqued Cummings and Henry for failing to provide evidence that disengagement is willingly done. While Cummings stuck to her theoretical position, Henry subsequently disavowed it in later publications and aligned himself with alternative theories that followed, includingÃ activity theory and continuity theory. Recommended Reading Growing Old, by Cumming and Henry, 1961.Lives Through the Years: Styles of Life and Successful Aging, by Wiliams and Wirths, 1965.Disengagement Theory: A Critical Evaluation, by George L. Maddox, Jr.,Ã The Gerontologist,Ã 1964.Disengagement Theory: A Critique and Proposal, by Arlie Hochschild,Ã American Sociological ReviewÃ 40, no. 5 (1975): 553Ã¢â¬â569.Disengagement Theory: A Logical, Empirical, and Phenomenological Critique, by Arlie Hochshchild, inÃ Time, Roles, and Self in Old Age, 1976.Revisiting the Kansas City study of adult life: roots of the disengagement model in social gerontology, by J. Hendricks,Ã Getontologist, 1994. Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹UpdatedÃ by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Literary Critique of All Quiet on the Western Front In the book All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque illustrates the picture of World War I to the reader. This book is the story of Paul Baumer, who with his classmates recruits in the German Army of World War I. This anti-war novel is an excellent book because through the experiences of Paul Baumer, I am able to actually feel like Im in the war. It is a very useful piece of literature, which increases the readers knowledge on how the war affected the people at the time setting. By reading this book, one is drawn into the actual events of the war, and can feel the abyss of death. I believe this piece is very well written. It is entirely simple, lacking any biasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many of Pauls fellow army men do not survive. After the loss of Pauls closest friends, returning to the front was hard for him. The days were getting cold and one by one he watched his friends die. The hardest loss was that of Kat. After Kat had been shot, Paul had to carry Kat to the nearest first-aid station a few miles away. Kat was the last of Pauls friends to die in the war. Then, in October of 1918, Paul is killed on a quiet day shortly before the armistice ends the war. As mentioned previously, the story is told from Pauls point of view. This view of his is parallel to that of Remarques. Remarques characterization of paul and the other soldiers is intended to convey information and instruction to the reader. For example the way these characters are described instructs the reader in the needless suffering and loss brought on by war. The author makes a point about military leaders through one of the characters. Kropp notes about rise in rank, As sure as they get a stripe or a star they become different men, just as though theyd swallowed concrete (43). Kat mentions that military life brings out the worst in men, particularly the abuse of power over lesser men. This is a significant part that the author adds into the book because it illustrates a metaphor of the greater powers wanting to attack the weaker countries to gain more power; imperialism, which is one of the main causes of the war. In chapter 4, one of the most dramatic in the book,Show MoreR elatedThe Boys Attitude to War in All Quiet on the Western Front Essay3195 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCompare ÃâGallipoli and ÃâAll Quiet on the Western Front in terms of the: Ã · Boys attitude to war Ã · Reasons for enlistment Ã · Experiences on the front How do these change their attitude to war? What does this tell you about the similarities and differences the Australians and Germans experiences? Analysis of Major Characters Paul BÃ ¤umer As the novels narrator and protagonist, Paul is the central figure in All Quiet on the Western Front and serves as the mouthpiece for Remarques meditationsRead More Biography of Ernest Hemingway Essay3737 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesof seventeen. Here he learned to get to the heart of a story with direct, simple sentences. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. Here he was wounded near the Italian/Austrian front. Hospitalized, he fell in love with his nurse, who later called off their relationship. After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the GreekRead More Visions of The Primitive in Langston HughesÃ¢â¬â¢s The Big Sea Essay examples6201 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesput at anchor with eighty or more other dead ships of a similar nature, and there we stayed all winter. ...[T]here were no visitors and I almost never went ashore. Those long winter nights with snow swirling down the Hudson, and the old ships rocking and creaking in the wind, and the ice scraping and crunching against their sides, and the steam hissing in the radiators were ideal for reading. I read all the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s library. (Hughes, 1986, p.95) Among the books that Hughes finds in the shipÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreI Just Wanna Be Average6008 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesstarted high school in the vocational education track, learning dead-end skills from teachers who were often underprepared or incompetent. Rose shows that students whom the system has written off can have tremendous unrealÃ ized potential, and his critique of the school system specifies several reasons for the failure of students who go through high school belligerent, fearful, stoned, frustrated, or just plain bored. This selection comes from Lives on the Boundary (1989), Roses exploration of AmericasRead MoreThe Nature Of The African Landscape10552 Words Ã |Ã 43 Pagesstate of the European characters and who he reflects it in his narrative. The abundant reports, literary narratives, and the variety of representations of the early travellers that belong to different social, cultural, and political backgrounds presented Africa with a very shining image. They loomed Africa as exotic, strange, and the promised of golden opportunities. However, in the nineteenth-century Western colonial discourse, Africabegan to function as a synonym to absence and infinite. (Miller, 1996:Read MoreContemporary American Poetry and Its Public Worlds Essay8159 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pageseveryone knows the critique of this style posed by Language Writing or radical poetics. Here I will be more interested in quieter but no less substantial critiques carried out by poets who retain commitments to a discursively cogent surface and to traditional lyric effects, even to the possibilities of dramatic closure that has made so much of contemporary work seem labored and self-congratulatory in its projected spaces of surmise and wonder. At the core of these critiques, both radical and fromRead MoreTotal Quality Management (Tqm) in Hospitality Industry: a Study of the Application of Tqm inÃ a HotelsÃ Engineering Department and ItsÃ Effects onÃ Hotel Performance18578 Words Ã |Ã 75 PageshotelsÃ engineering department and itsÃ effects onÃ hotel performance by Mark Chan Total Quality Management (TQM) methodology can help organizations to achieve business excellence. This methodology is also useful for the hospitality industry; almost all hotels focus on quality management to improve their business by enhancing customer satisfaction, competitive advantage and retaining guest loyalty. TQM is teamwork; every functional department must work cohesively together and support each other inRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagesscreen, and its audience it must go through a three stage process. Firstly and most obviously it has to be produced, following this it must then be distributed, and finally exhibited. Before the introduction of the studio system in the 1920s all of these processes were controlled separately. Although this gave the makers of films, such as directors and producers, room to express their creativity it placed a heavy constraint upon the amount of movies that could be made, and financialRead MorePoems: City Planners15330 Words Ã |Ã 62 Pagesdistance - of us and them, whereas Atwood uses the inclusive Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢, to suggest that this experience of cities is one that we can all relate to and share. Her attitude - and the narratorial tone of the poem - seems negative. She uses words like Ã¢â¬Ëoffends usÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËdiscouragedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËavoidanceÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ësickness lingeringÃ¢â¬â¢, including the semantic field of illness. These seem mostly quiet, and passive, but as the poem progresses, she shifts into a more violent tone, with Ã¢â¬ËhysteriaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbruiseÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËviciousÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËcapsizedÃ¢â¬â¢,Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagessituates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanal ysis. Like all good textbooks, the book is accessible, well researched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips with the field of organization theory. Dr Martin Brigham, Lancaster University, UK McAuley et al. provide a
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the Management Theory and Practice for Modern Management. Answer: 1: Henry Fayol is considered as father of modern management. He laid down the foundation on developing management as a distinct and specialized body of knowledge. He recommended that there were five principal purposes of management and fourteen principles. Below mentioned are the six principal objectives of a management: Planning: This function of management aims to chalk out future course of actions and determining the most suitable course of action to achieve the desired goals. Organizing: This function aims to bring together various available resources together and develop a correlation among them to achieve the goal. Staffing: The main purpose of function is to serve the requirement of choosing the right person for the right job. It includes manpower planning, training and development, performance appraisal etc. Directing: This function aims at influencing, supervising, guiding and motivating the employees to achieve organizational goals. Controlling: The function aims to check whether everything is falling in its in the process of achieving organizational goal (OConnor 2015). Fayol also gave fourteen principles that are applied in todays business which are division labor to increase productivity, authority and responsibility to create feeling of belongingness, obey disciplines that govern the organization, unity of command emphasized on the fact that each employee should receive orders from one superior, unity of direction explained that all employees should focus on same objective, subordination, remuneration emphasized on fair remuneration to each employee, centralization of decision making, scalar chain, order, equity, permanence of term of employees, initiatives and Espirit the corps which aims at promoting team spirit and build harmony and unity within the organization (Peaucelle and Guthrie 2015). 4: Peter. F. Drucker is considered as the leader among various other contemporary management thinkers. He had knowledge in various areas as law, psychology, journalism, sociology. Throughout his life, Drucker devised solutions to various managerial problems. His assistance covered various aspects of management. Following are the major contributions made by Drucker management functions, nature of management, organization structure, management by objectives, federalism, and organizational changes. Management by objectives (MBO) is considered as one of the most vital contributions made by Drucker. The term management by objectives (MBO) was coined by Drucker in 1954. It refers to the practice of setting goals for the workforce to ensure employees should know what they are supposed to do at the workplace. In the words of Drucker, its rather a philosophy than a management technique (Drucker 2013). Following are the needs of Management by Objectives (MBO): It helps the employees to understand their duties at workplace. Key result areas (KRAs) are defined for the employees based on their educational qualifications and experience. It leads employees towards satisfaction. It shuns the probability of job mismatch followed by unwanted confusions. Limitations of Management by Objectives (MBO): It does not emphasize on the facts such as existing working conditions and work culture in the organization. It mainly emphasizes on the goals and objectives of the organization. It merely expects its employees to achieve the pre-determined target of the organizations without considering the facts such workplace conditions. This process sometimes treats human being as mere machines (Turriago Thoene and Arjoon 2016). References Drucker, P., 2013.People and performance. Routledge. OConnor, E.S., 2015, October. Henri Fayol and the managerial point of view. InAnnales des Mines-Grer et comprendre(No. 3, pp. 93-95). FFE. Peaucelle, J.L. and Guthrie, C., 2015. Henri Fayol. Turriago-Hoyos, A., Thoene, U. and Arjoon, S., 2016. Knowledge Workers and Virtues in Peter Druckers Management Theory.SAGE Open,6(1), p.2158244016639631.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Proteus vulgaris is a gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, bacillus rodchemoheterotroph bacterium belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It possesses peritrichous flagella, making it actively motile. P. vulgaris occurs naturally the intestional tracts of humans and animals, soil, fecal matter, polluted water, and raw meat. It is grouped with the enterobacteriacea and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. In humans P. vulgaris is known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections. P. ulgaris is associated with nosocomial infection, and has the ability to degrade urea to ammonia by production of the enzyme urease. McConkey agar contains lactose, which P. vulgaris does not ferment. It ferments glucose, sucrose, galactose, glycerol occasionally maltose with gas production, but never lactose. P. vulgaris ferments liquefies gelatin, casein, and blood serum, curdling milk with acid production. P. vulgaris provides a positive result for: sulfur reduction,urease production, tryptophan deaminase production, and indole production. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not limited to any specific temperature range, but good growth occurs at 20 to 30 degrees Celsius, while growth is poor at 37 degrees Celsius. We will write a custom essay sample on Proteus Vulgaris or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page P. vulgaris has two interesting features. The cells are highly motile and swarm across the surface of the agar plates, forming a very thin film of bacteria. When the cells stop and undergo a cycle of growth and division, the swarming periods are interspersed wth periods and the colony has a distinct zonation. The other feature is that. P. vulgaris can produce urease and degrade urea to ammonia. By alkalining the urine, P. vulgaris makes the environment more suitable for its survival. P. vulgaris is more prone to cause nosocomial infections. To prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens within hospitals, the persistence of nosocomial pathogens on surfaces was assessed. The longer a nosocomial pathogens remains on a surface, the longer it may be a source of transmission and thus there is higher chance of getting exposed to a susceptible patient or hospital personnel. The result showed that P. vulgaris survived 1-2 days. To reduce the risk of transmission of nosocomial pathogens from inanimate surfaces to susceptible patients, disinfection of surfaces in specific patient-care areas is recommended.